下面为大家整理一篇优秀的essay代写范文- Financing options for listed companies，供大家参考学习，这篇论文讨论了上市公司的融资选择。在上市公司的融资选择影响因素方面，股权融资实际的低成本、特殊股权结构和不成熟的债券市场是上市公司偏好股权融资的根本原因，再融资政策的导向作用也是造成上市公司不合理再融资行为现象的重要原因之一。另一个影响因素是目前存在的高资产负债率，上市公司在上市前所具有的过度负债的不合理资本结构促使其在上市后偏好股权融资来降低资产负债率。上市前的高负债率的资本结构往往会影响上市公司的融资决策，并且可能会带有一定盲目性。
The capital market develops with the development of the economy, the stock and bond markets are developing continuously, and the economic growth rate is a little weak. However, the trial of science and technology innovation board and the implementation of registration system are bound to bring a new wave of competition in the capital market. In this context, corporate financing, as a necessary condition for the continuous operation and scale expansion of an enterprise, is of self-evident importance to the orderly development of the capital market. As an important part of China's market economy, the financing choice of listed companies after listing is very important to the development of China's economy.
China's capital market is booming because the government attaches great importance to capital market, and listed companies are springing up like mushrooms. The establishment was announced by President xi jinping at the opening ceremony of the first China international import expo (ciie) on November 5, 2018. It is a new section independent of the existing main board market, and a pilot registration system will be carried out in this section, bringing a new atmosphere of reform to the capital market. With the further deepening of China's capital market and economic reform, China's market economy is gradually moving towards prosperity, and the capital market will usher in a healthy new atmosphere with the beginning of science and technology innovation board and registration system. Large and small listed companies emerge in an orderly manner to promote steady economic development. However, in the current economic situation, the operation of listed companies can not only rely on the resources of enterprises, but also need financing to create more benefits. As one of the three major decisions of financial management, financing decision is an important aspect that affects the operation of listed companies and an important guarantee for the orderly and healthy development of listed companies. Listed companies will become increasingly important in the social economy. However, the financing choice of listed companies is of vital importance not only to the fund demand of its own scale development and operating efficiency, but also to the stock market and even to the economic development needs.
Foreign experts and scholars have been updating relevant theories on the financing structure of listed companies. In 1952, David Durand put forward three classical capital structure theories, namely, net income theory, net operating income theory and traditional theory. In 1958, the MM theorem proposed by American economists modigliani and miller also became a classic in financing theory for a time, paving the way for later theoretical research. Although the MM theorem was established under very ideal conditions and divorced from reality, its position in financing theory is indelible. Later, many economists revised MM theorem and made innovations from the aspects of enterprise capital structure and enterprise value, and put forward the so-called "balance theory", miller model and new comprehensive theory. However, due to the particularity of China's economy, these theories are often not applicable.
China's listed companies have a strong preference for equity financing. They took 397 valid samples and conducted a questionnaire survey on the financing methods of companies after listing, among which 380 companies participated in the questionnaire, and concluded that about three-quarters of enterprises preferred equity financing. In order of the cumulative amount of financing, it can be concluded that: short-term borrowing -- profit retention -- rights offering -- long-term borrowing -- issuing new shares -- issuing ordinary corporate bonds -- issuing convertible bonds -- other order. Financing of listed companies in China in terms of raising, relative follows the pecking order theory, the tendency to prefer using endogenous financing, but also exist in equity financing higher than bond financing and the characteristics of short-term borrowing amount ranked first, it may be that the short-term financing long-term financing easier in operation, the enterprises have to make short-term loans by operating pressure.
Another current situation of listed companies is the serious situation of random change of capital investment. According to statistics, 57.36% of all companies raising funds have changed their capital investment, 60.72% have changed their capital investment after allotment, and 49.47% have changed their capital use after allotment. This shows that China has a very serious phenomenon of changing the purpose of raising funds, which seriously damages the image of listed companies, increases the difficulty of their refinancing behavior, and also increases the risk of investors, and the phenomenon of excessive financing. Listed companies are hungry for money. Many companies are eager to refinance and will put forward secondary financing plans in a very short time after listing. According to statistics, in 2009, a total of 18 companies listed less than a year before they put forward refinancing plans, raising a total of 27 billion yuan, of which 10 have been implemented.
In the factors influencing the financing options of listed companies, equity financing is the actual low cost, the special equity structure and not mature bond market is the root cause of the preference of equity financing of listed companies, and points out the guiding role of refinancing policy that unreasonable refinancing behavior of listed companies is caused by one of the important reasons. Another influencing factor is the current high asset-liability ratio. The unreasonable capital structure of excessive liabilities of listed companies before listing prompts them to prefer equity financing to reduce asset-liability ratio after listing. The capital structure with high debt ratio before listing often affects the financing decisions of listed companies, and may be blind to some extent.
It can be said that Chinese scholars' research on the financing behavior of listed companies has been constantly updated and developed with the changes of The Times, and has certain uniformity. In recent years, the financing volatility of listed companies in China is very high. From the perspective of refinancing, the pattern has also changed from dominated by rights offering to balanced by additional issuance, rights offering and convertible bonds, which is also related to policy orientation. According to the literature read, the academia generally believes that listed companies have obvious preference for equity financing and the development of bond market lags behind. In equity financing, the phenomenon of heavy financing and light dividend is very serious, there are obvious speculation, illegal and illegal problems. In order to better solve the problems existing in the post-ipo financing, we should further study the financing options of enterprises after IPO, understand the current situation and problems of listed companies' financing, so as to strengthen the effective allocation of resources in the economy and society, which is of great significance to the prosperity of China's economic development.
Internal financing avoids the cost of external interest or dividend payment, has no impact on the company's cash flow, and does not generate operating expenses during financing, which is far better than external financing in terms of cost and time. However, a large amount of capital is often needed in production and operation activities, which must be financed by external sources.
Creditor's rights financing is divided into loans and bonds. The borrowing procedure of the bank is simple, the financing cost is low, but the interest is high, and the repayment and interest payment pressure of the enterprise is great. Corporate bonds refer to the debenture issued by the company and promise to repay the principal and interest within the agreed time. The interest is lower than that of bank loans, but the indirect cost and time cost are high. At present, China's bond market is in a period of booming development, and the status of bond financing in corporate financing is gradually improving. Similarly, borrowing and bonds increase risk as well as leverage.
Equity financing means that a company issues shares in the stock market for financing. At present, there are additional issues, rights issues and convertible bonds. Compared with debt financing, equity financing has its own advantages. Equity financing funds belong to the company's permanent capital, there is no pressure to repay, and do not have to bear fixed interest costs like bonds, low financial risk, but high issuance costs. In China, however, the real cost of equity financing is low.
For a long time, it has been widely held in the academic circle that listed companies in China prefer equity financing. Equity refinancing has experienced from the initial boom of rights offering to the gradually flourishing private placement financing after the introduction of additional issuance, to the current equity financing situation where additional issuance and convertible bonds are the main and rights offering is the auxiliary.
In April 2019, there were nearly 4,000 listed companies in China. According to the data released by the China securities regulatory commission, equity financing plays an important role in the financing of listed companies in China, and also provides an important guarantee for the continuous operation and development of listed companies in China.
On the other hand, the rapid development of China's securities market in recent years, coupled with policy support and stock market risk fluctuations, the scale of bond financing is also expanding.
Through the analysis, we can see that the financing scale of listed companies in China is developing rapidly. The amount of money raised in China shows a rapid growth trend, especially in the first quarter of 2019, the issuance of new shares accelerated, the amount of money raised in China reached a high point, which is a multiple of the previous year, indicating that China's domestic financing situation is good. On the other hand, the number and scale of listed companies gradually increase. It can be said that after several years of trough, the stock market financing ushered in a new round of prosperity. Equity refinancing is still popular. In terms of bond financing, data show that bond financing is no longer the meagre position in corporate financing decisions, and China's bond market is gradually developing.
Around the 20th century, China's bond market development lags behind, the development of the capital market is not balanced, the bond policy is not perfect lead to the degree of cumbersome problems, which prompted the abnormal order of China's market financing, that is, equity financing is higher than bond financing. Relevant data show that this phenomenon has been continuing since 1995, leading to excessive financing costs. On the other hand, the choice of financing mode is largely restricted by financing cost. Because of poor dividend policy, dividend distribution policy is decided by firmly in control of large shareholders, that is, the dividend return for the cost of equity financing is actually controlled, it is certainly more than the bond matures servicing hard rules more attractive, in our country, there is the actual cost of equity financing low anomaly. Furthermore, the unreasonableness of equity division also makes major shareholders have a preference for equity financing.
Beijing Hualu Baina Film&Tv Inc., founded in 2002, is in charge of state-owned assets supervision and administration under the state council of central enterprises China HuaLu group specializing in film and television planning, investment, production, distribution and performance management of enterprise, the specialty is engaged in the field of digital audio and video technology research, hardware and software application development and information culture industry, cultural industry is the only main business covers the central enterprise of large enterprise groups. The registered capital is 10 million yuan. As of December 31, 2015, the total assets of the company are 4,698,073 yuan and the net assets are 389,919 yuan. In 2015, the net profit reached 266,902,300 yuan. In 2012, hualu baina was officially listed on the shenzhen stock exchange with the securities code of 300291, becoming the first a-share listed film and television company registered in Beijing and the only a-share listed film and television company in Beijing so far.
Analysis of the financing structure of hualu baina, we can see that hualu baina listed in 2012, the actual capital raising 675 million yuan, p/e ratio of 82.46 times, can be said to be a good first, three years after the listing, the net profit growth rate of 5.43%, 21.2% and 78.65%, the overall business performance is good, the profit growth rate is fast. In the three years after the listing, the company has issued additional shares for three times, including two successful ones and one in progress. The total net capital raised by the company is 2.486 billion yuan, with unissued bonds.
Listed before, the rate of assets and liabilities of the company is 49.44%, in line with the economic Suggestions to company asset-liability ratio, in 2015, the asset-liability ratio is only 17%, and liabilities are debt service pressure and high rates of short-term loans, to a certain extent weakened the financial leverage effect, increasing the company's short-term repayment pressure, high interest rates to a certain extent reduces the management benefit, make the resource allocation efficiency is low. The increase in short-term lending may be related to the special short-term funding needs of the industry, but such financing decisions are not very rational in the long run. In addition, a large number of additional shares to a certain extent diluted earnings per share, reduce the profitability of the enterprise, there is suspicion of circle of money.
Listed only a few years, hualu baina has a rapid growth capacity. This enterprise has shown the phenomenon of the rapid increase of secondary new shares after the listing of Chinese enterprises. Of course, this does not negate the great development of bond financing in the financing options of Chinese listed companies after listing. Equity financing in China, despite its corresponding advantages, the role of financial leverage is also cannot be ignored, especially the bond market has entered a boom in recent years, the issue of low interest rates can reduce corporate financing cost, suggested the company appropriately raise the proportion of creditor's rights financing, steadily into the bond market, the average cost of capital at optimum levels, improve the utilization efficiency of financing, and attaches great importance to the dividend policy, at the same time pay attention to avoid dilution caused by operating risk.