# 程序代写案例-COMS30069

COMS30069: Machine learning coursework
2022
1 Introduction
This coursework is designed for you to apply some of the methods that you
have learn
ed during our Machine Learning unit and that are also commonly
applied in practice. Given that this is your only assessment for this unit the
coursework is designed to be relatively open-ended with some guidelines, so
that you can demonstrate your knowledge of what was taught – both in the
labs and in the lectures.
Figure 1: Samples from the fashion MNIST dataset.
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In this coursework, we will focus on modern yet accessible machine learn-
ing dataset: fashion MNIST dataset1 and the California housing regression
dataset2. We recommend that you first get a basic implementation, and start
writing your report with some plots with results across all four topics, and
in light of the concepts covered in the lectures (e.g. curse of dimensionality,
overfitting, etc.). Feel free to use a subset of the full fashion MNIST dataset
to speed up optimisation. You should use this coursework to demonstrate
your understanding of the different machine learning models and concepts not
explain all the methods used using equations and/or algorithms as
appropriate.
2.1 Analysing fashion-MNIST (25 marks)
To gain a deeper understanding of a particular dataset it is often a good
strategy to analyse it using unsupervised methods. Use only the fashion-
2.1.1 PCA (10 marks)
Run PCA on the fashion-MNIST dataset.
1. How much variance do the first and second principal components ex-
plain? (5 marks)
2. Create a 2D scatterplot of the data projected onto the first two principal
components. Differentiate between the different classes using colour.
To what extent do the datapoints in your scatter plot cluster into the
different classes? (5 marks)
2.1.2 Gaussian Mixture Modelling (15 marks)
1. Use a Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM) to do (soft) clustering using
just the first two components from the PCA analysis above. Make the
1https://github.com/zalandoresearch/fashion-mnist
2https://scikit-learn.org/stable/datasets/index.html#
california-housing-dataset
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GMM a mixture of 10 Gaussians. Plot your clusters in 2D. It is up to
you to choose how best to plot clusters. (8 marks)
2. Analyse the relationship between the clusters produced using the Gaus-
sian Mixture Model and the class labels. It is up to you to decide what
should be included in this analysis. (7 marks)
2.2 Classifiers (25 marks)
Building on what you learnt from the labs, here you are asked to contrast
two types of classifiers, Artificial neural networks (ANNs) and Support Vector
Machines (SVMs). Using the libraries used during the labs you only need
to run two classifiers, and discuss its advantages and disadvantages over the
other. You should make sure to control for overfitting. Use only the fashion
MNIST dataset for this task. Feel free to use a subset of the full dataset to
speed up optimisation.
2.2.1 Artificial neural networks (10 marks)
Here you are going to study and discuss ANNs as a model for the fashion
MNIST classification dataset. In particular you should:
1. Train an ANN, plot the training and validation learning curves. Do
you see any signs of overfitting? Interpret and discuss your results. (1
mark)
2. What are your results in the testing dataset? Interpret and discuss
3. How sensitive is this method to different hyperparameters? Make use
4. Plot decision boundaries and discuss their relevance. (2 marks)
2.2.2 Support Vector Machines (15 marks)
Here you are going to study and discuss SVMs as a model for the fashion
MNIST classification dataset. In particular you should:
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1. Train an SVM (with a specific Kernel), plot the training and validation
learning curves. You may need to subsample the dataset if SVM train-
ing is taking too long. Do you see any signs of overfitting? Interpret
and discuss your results. (1 mark)
2. What are your results in the testing dataset? Interpret and discuss
3. How sensitive is this method to different hyperparameters? For ex-
ample the different types of kernel (e.g. linear, RBF, etc.). Make use
of plots (e.g. performance on test dataset as a function of different
4. Plot decision boundaries and discuss their relevance. (2 marks)
5. Compare your SVM results with the ANN above in terms of perfor-
mance and the time it takes to train each method. For example, use
bar plots to compare their performances and training times next to
each other. Which is the better model? And why? (5 marks)
2.3 Bayesian linear regression with PyMC (25 marks)
In this task you are required to use PyMC to perform Bayesian linear re-
gression on the California housing dataset which is easily available via the
sklearn.datasets.fetch california housing function. The goal with this dataset
is to predict the median house value in a ‘block’ in California. A block is
a small geographical area with a population of between 600 and 3000 peo-
ple. Each datapoint in this dataset corresponds to a block. Consult the
scikit-learn documentation for details of the predictor variables.
1. Produce a suitable plot which shows how longitude and latitude af-
fects median house price. Explain what your plot tells you about the
relationship between these two predictors and median house price. (5
marks)
2. Decide whether you need to transform and/or clean the data. Justify
3. Choose prior distributions for all model parameters and then use PyMC
to get approximate posterior distributions over each model parameter.
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In your report include plots of these posterior distributions, as well as
giving the mean and standard deviation of each distribution. (5 marks)
4. Did your run of PyMC succeed, that is: did it produce good approx-
(5 marks)
5. The full dataset has 20640 datapoints. Now run PyMC on two random
samples of datapoints, one of size 50 and one of size 500. Compare
the posterior distributions you get for the 3 dataset sizes (50, 500 and
20640), stating what the most important differences are and explaining
how these differences arose. (5 marks)
2.4 Trees and ensembles (25 marks)
This part extends the work on decision trees and ensemble methods from lab
7 to regression on the California Housing regression task.
2.4.1 CART Decision Trees (15 marks)
In this part you are going to apply a decision tree regressor to the California
following points:
1. Briefly explain how the CART decision tree method works. (2 marks)
2. Use model selection to optimise the hyperparameters of the model.
Which hyperparameter has the strongest effect on the model’s perfor-
mance? Use a plot to show this effect. (5 marks)
3. How do the hyperparameters affect the training time? Use plots to
parameter values. (3 marks)
4. What are the results for your chosen setup on the test set? Interpret
and discuss your results. (3 marks)
5. In what situations could a decision tree be a better choice than linear
regression? (1 marks)
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6. Identify a data point that the model classifies incorrectly. Explain how
the model classifies this data point, in terms of the sequence of decisions
it makes. Use a diagram to help with your interpretation. (2 marks)
2.4.2 Ensemble Methods (10 marks)
Here, you need to choose an ensemble method and apply it to the California
1. Briefly explain how your chosen ensemble method works, mentioning
the key benefits of your chosen method. You do not need to give an
exhaustive set of equations. (2 marks)
2. How is your method affected by the number of base models in the
ensemble? Use a plot to support your discussion. (3 marks)
3. What are the results for your chosen setup on the test set? Interpret
and discuss your results, and briefly compare them with those of the
single decision tree and Bayesian linear regression. Use plots or tables
to support your comparison. (5 marks)
3 Implementation
You are expected to build on the skills you have learned during the labs.
Therefore, you should use the Python libraries used during the labs, namely
Scikit-learn and PyMC. You can use other libraries, but we won’t be able to
provide support on those.
4 Assessment criteria
Your coursework will be evaluated based on a submitted report, containing
the appropriate discussion and results. The aim of this report is to demon-
strate your understanding of the methods you used and the results that you
have obtained. Note: In the report it is important that you briefly describe
the methods used.
The report should be no more than 10 pages long, using no less than 11
point font. Note that your report should be quality rather than quantity,
so do not feel like you have to use 10 pages if they are not needed. If you
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wish to use a template for Latex, you can use the basic report template or
the Coling 2020 template. Submission: On Blackboard (under Assessment,
Coursework) with a pdf file (as cw userid.pdf) for the report together
with your code (e.g. with the Jupyter Notebooks you have used; as
cw userid.zip). Note that your code is not going to be used for marking,
To gain high marks your report will need to demonstrate clearly a thor-
ough understanding of the tasks and the methods used, backed up by a clear
explanation (including figures) of your results and analysis. The structure of
the report and what is included in it is your decision and you should aim to
write it in a professional and objective manner so that it addresses the issues
mentioned above. In particular you need to explain clearly the following
elements:
1. Analyse the fashion MNIST dataset using K-means and PCA (25%)
2. Apply and discuss the results of a classifier on fashion MNIST (ANN
and SVM) (25%)
3. Bayesian linear regression on the California housing dataset (25%)
4. Implement random forest and stacking and contrast (using the Cali-
fornia housing dataset) them with the previous methods in terms of
performance and interpretability (25%)
8th December 2022 (end of week 11). Students should submit all re-
quired materials to the “Assessment, submission and feedback” section of
Blackboard - it is essential that this is done on the Blackboard page related
to the “With Coursework” variant of the unit.
5 Support provided
This is your only form of assessment so we cannot provide direct support
on the coursework. However, we can clarify questions you might have about
specific material from the lectures and/or the labs. We will try our best to
be available for this via Teams on Tuedays 1-2pm and at least one of the
lectures will be available 9-10am on Thursdays, in the usual lab space.
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6 Further clarifications
• You are expected to work around 8h/day for 5 days/week.
• Feel free to use the labs materials as a starting point.
• To make the best use of space you should use matplotlib subplots and
use a given plot to make comparisons (e.g. training and validation
learning curve).
• We suggests that you use Python with Jupyter Notebook and the li-
braries that we used during the labs (e.g. Scikit-learn and PyMC). You
can use others but not that support wont be available.
that is not your own, falsification of data/evidence or the use of ma-
terials without appropriate referencing) are all taken very seriously by
the University. Suspected offences will be dealt with in accordance
with the University’s policies and procedures. If an academic offence is
suspected in your work, you will be asked to attend an interview with
senior members of the school, where you will be given the opportunity
to defend your work. The plagiarism panel are able to apply a range
of penalties, depending on the severity of the offence. These include:
requirement to resubmit work, capping of grades and the award of no
mark for an element of assessment.
• Extenuating circumstances: If the completion of your assignment
has been significantly disrupted by serious health conditions, personal
problems, periods of quarantine, or other similar issues, you may be
able to apply for consideration of extenuating circumstances (in ac-
cordance with the normal university policy and processes). Students
should apply for consideration of extenuating circumstances as soon as
possible when the problem occurs. If your application for extenuating
circumstances is successful, it is most likely that you will be required
to retake the assessment of the unit at the next available opportunity.
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7 Marking guidelines
7.1 Outstanding (80+)
+ mastery of advanced methods in all aspects;
+ truly impressive outcome, novelty, with strong research elements – close
to publication quality;
+ synthesis in an original way using ideas from the unit but also from the
literature;
+ outstanding presentation of work, with very clear description of the
methods and results;
+ excellent use of plots to support the interpretations;
+ evidence of outstanding unique and individual contributions.
7.2 First class (70+)
+ excellent outcome in all aspects;
+ evidence of excellent use and deep understanding of a wide range of
techniques;
+ study, originality and synthesis clearly beyond the minimum require-
ments set out in the coursework description;
+ excellent presentation of work, with very clear description of the meth-
ods and results;
+ very good use of plots to support the interpretations;
+ evidence of excellent contributions or insights into the methods tested.
7.3 Merit (60+)
+ very good outcome with complete solutions for all the required aspects
of the assignment;
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+ evidence of very good use and strong understanding of a range of tech-
niques;
+ study, comprehension and synthesis fully meet or exceed the require-
ments set out in the coursework description;
+ very good presentation of work, with clear description of the methods
and results;
+ good use of plots to support the interpretations;
+ evidence of critical analysis and judgement of the methods tested.
7.4 Good (50+)
+ good outcome but some of parts of the assignment not fully completed;
+ evidence of good use and understanding of standard techniques;
+ some grasp of issues and concepts underlying the techniques;
+ adequate presentation of work, including a description of the methods
and results;
+ some good use of plots to support the interpretations but with some
notable shortcomings;
+ evidence of understanding and appropriate use of techniques.
7.5 Passing (40+)
+ Limit outcome yet basic, partly solutions to all the 4 main topics
+ limit understanding as demonstrated through discussion and plots
+ poor presentation of results
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