代写代考接单- 1213-1 MEDSCI 205 (10/06/2021 13:00) The Physiology of Human Organ (Exam) 

 1213-1 MEDSCI 205 (10/06/2021 13:00) The Physiology of Human Organ (Exam) 

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I agree 1/9 1213-1 MEDSCI 205 (10/06/2021 13:00) The Physiology of Human Organ (Exam) 1 a) Define Diarrhoea and briefly explain the underlying physiology between Osmotic and Secretory Diarrhoeas. (3 marks) b) Explain the underlying principle behind Oral Rehydration treatment. (2 marks) Fill in your answer here Maximum marks: 5 2 Describe the pathway/s involved in modulating renal sympathetic nerve activity when there is an increase in circulating blood volume but no change in blood pressure. Denote whether there is an increase or decrease in activity of the various components. (5 marks) Fill in your answer here Maximum marks: 5 3 Outline the cellular mechanisms underlying the generation of pacemaker action potentials in the SA node. Briefly describe how these cells are modulated by the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system to control heart rate. (5 marks) Fill in your answer here Maximum marks: 5 2/9 1213-1 MEDSCI 205 (10/06/2021 13:00) The Physiology of Human Organ (Exam) 4 A young, otherwise healthy individual experiences a rapid decrease in arterial pressure. a) Name and describe the neural responses that would result. (3 marks) i. Sensory afferent response: ii. Efferent nerve responses: As a result of the decrease in blood pressure, blood flow to the periphery is affected. b) Describe two intrinsic mechanisms that would contribute to the regulation of local blood flow: (2 marks) Fill in your answer here 5 Briefly describe three metabolic causes of peripheral fatigue. (5 marks) Fill in your answer here Maximum marks: 5 Maximum marks: 5 3/9 1213-1 MEDSCI 205 (10/06/2021 13:00) The Physiology of Human Organ (Exam) 6 Two patients were quietly sitting side by side in the Respiratory Clinic waiting room. They were of similar build, and each had a dead space volume of 100 mLs. The alveolar ventilation of each patient was also exactly the same, yet the clinic nurse noticed that one of the patients had a respiratory rate that was twice that of the other patient. In the text box spaces below: a) Define alveolar ventilation, and very briefly explain why it is of interest to a Respiratory Physiologist. (1 mark) b) Write an equation for alveolar ventilation and define the terms. (1mark) c) Explain how each patient could conceivably have the same alveolar ventilation, and the same dead space volume, yet a respiratory rate double that of the other. (1 mark) d) Comment on the relative work of breathing between the two patients. Explain your answer in terms of the different contributing components. (2 marks) Fill in your answer here Maximum marks: 5 7 During hypoxia the fetus becomes bradycardic. In relation to this statement, answer the following. (5 marks) 1. Bradycardia is defined as: 2. Which arm of the autonomic nervous system mediates bradycardia and by what nerves? 3. Which specific receptors mediate bradycardia during hypoxia? 4. Define an experiment that would prove which nerve controls fetal bradycardia during hypoxia 5. Define an experiment that would prove which receptors mediate bradycardia during hypoxia. Fill in your answer here Maximum marks: 5 4/9 1213-1 MEDSCI 205 (10/06/2021 13:00) The Physiology of Human Organ (Exam) 8 The placenta is accommodated as the organ of gas exchange for the fetus and ensures that the highest oxygenated blood reaches the organs with highest metabolic demand through a series of shunts and ducts. In relation to this statement, briefly answer the following. (5 marks) 1. Define the position and function of the ductus venosus. 2. Discuss why there are two differently oxygenated streams of blood in the inferior vena cava and why these streams do not mix. 3. Define the position and function of the foramen ovale. 4. Define the position and function of the ductus arteriosus. 5. Discuss the role of the aortic isthmus in increasing the oxygen content of the fetal ascending aorta. Fill in your answer here 9 Using fluid distribution in a 70 kg male as an example, briefly discuss how the body maintains an osmolarity of 280-300 mOsmol/L. Include key concepts of Homeostasis and “Gain” in your answer. (30 marks) Maximum marks: 5  Upload your file here. Maximum one file. The following file types are allowed: .pdf Maximum file size is 1 GB  Select file to upload Maximum marks: 30 5/9 1213-1 MEDSCI 205 (10/06/2021 13:00) The Physiology of Human Organ (Exam) 10 The kangaroo rat is a desert dwelling rodent that can sustain itself with minimal water intake. It has specialised kidneys that allows it to excrete urine 20 times more concentrated than body fluid. (30 marks) A. Explain how hyperosmolar urine can be formed with emphasis on how the counter-current mechanism in the kidney is generated and used. B. Speculate on adaptations to the counter-current mechanism the kangaroo rat might have developed to enable it to concentrate its urine to a higher osmolarity than is possible in humans.  Upload your file here. Maximum one file. The following file types are allowed: .pdf Maximum file size is 1 GB  Select file to upload Maximum marks: 30 6/9 1213-1 MEDSCI 205 (10/06/2021 13:00) The Physiology of Human Organ (Exam) 11 1. From the Limb Leads above, comment on each of the following features. Note any abnormalities. (6 marks) a. Heart rate b. Is this patient in sinus rhythm? c. QRS morphology 2. Explain the benefit of including the Precordial Leads (V1-6) in a standard ECG assessment. What additional information can be drawn from the precordial leads in the patient above? (3 marks) 3. Estimate the mean QRS axis for this patient (show your working). Comment on the significance of this finding. (5 marks) 4. Suggest a cardiac pathology consistent with your observations. (1 mark) 5. The patient is prescribed medications to lower total peripheral resistance and reduce fluid retention. Explain how these interventions would help to reduce the workload on the heart (hint: consider preload and afterload). (15 marks) 7/9 1213-1 MEDSCI 205 (10/06/2021 13:00) The Physiology of Human Organ (Exam) Maximum marks: 30 12 Describe the three metabolic processes that supply energy to the body during exercise and explain why each process is required. For example, the first would predominate during powerlifting, the second would predominate in a 400-meter sprint, and the third would predominate in a marathon. (30 marks)  Upload your file here. Maximum one file. The following file types are allowed: .pdf Maximum file size is 1 GB  Select file to upload Maximum marks: 30  Upload your file here. Maximum one file. The following file types are allowed: .pdf Maximum file size is 1 GB  Select file to upload 8/9 1213-1 MEDSCI 205 (10/06/2021 13:00) The Physiology of Human Organ (Exam) 13 Competitive free-divers are able to reach depths of more than 100 m. Write an essay in which you i) describe how breathing is controlled in the body, and ii) discuss the physiological problems that free-divers must overcome. (30 marks)  Upload your file here. Maximum one file. The following file types are allowed: .pdf Maximum file size is 1 GB  Select file to upload 14 Blood samples taken during fetal surgery showed that the fetus has a partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2) in brain blood vessels of 24mmHg, but a PaO2 of only 20mmHg in the kidney. With reference to lectures on the placenta, fetal oxygenation and fetal cardiovascular structure discuss why there was a difference in PaO2 values in the different organs, and why both fetal PaO2 values are considered physiologically normal compared to an adult PaO2 value of 100mmHg. (30 marks) Maximum marks: 30  Upload your file here. Maximum one file. The following file types are allowed: .pdf Maximum file size is 1 GB  Select file to upload Maximum marks: 30 9/9 


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