程序代写接单-COMPSCI 5096

Wednesday, 20 May, 09:15 BST (24 hour open online assessment – Indicative duration 1.5 hours) DEGREES of MSci, MEng, BEng, BSc, MA and MA (Social Sciences) TEXT AS DATA (M) COMPSCI 5096 (Answer 3 out of 4 questions) This examination paper is worth a total of 60 marks. 1. This question is about tokenisation and similarity. (a) This part concerns processing text. Consider the input string: [He didn’t like the U.S. movie “Snakes on a train, revenge of Viper-man!”, now playing in the U.K.] (i) Provide a tokenised form of the above string. Identify and discuss two elements of the above string that present ambiguities. Justify your tokenisation decision for each. [3] (ii) Compare and contrast ‘standard’ word-based tokenisation with the tokenisation method used by BERT. Illustrate key differences using the example provided. Analyse and discuss why they differ and their relative advantages and disadvantages. (Hint: Recall we used BERT’s tokeniser in Lab 1 and in the in-class embedding exercise.) [4] (b) Consider the two tokenized documents: S1: [a, woman, is, under, a, mayan, curse] S2: [a, woman, sees, a, mayan, shaman, to, lift, the, curse] Create a Dictionary from the two documents above (S1 and S2) with appropriate ordering. Give your answer in the form of a table with ID and token. Discuss the following properties of the dictionary and provide reasons for the decision: 1) what is included in the dictionary and 2) the order of the dictionary. [3] (c) Critically evaluate the Bag-of-Words (BoW) model as a term weighting feature model for documents. Discuss its strengths and give three weaknesses of the model and propose a modification that addresses each. You should relate each to Sci-kit Learn vectorizers and their important parameters. [4] (d) You are measuring the similarity between two molecular compounds for drug discovery research. They have been processed to create a series of unique structural ‘fingerprints’ and a one-hot encoding of the compounds is created. A compound has tens of thousands of fingerprints on average and all the compounds are approximately the same size. Also, most of the compounds in the dataset share more than 90% of fingerprints in common. A lab partner suggests using Jaccard overlap to measure the similarity between compounds. First, critically discuss why Jaccard is or is not appropriate for this task and the challenges it presents. Second, propose and justify a change to both the representation and similarity measure to address them. [6] 1 CONTINUED OVERLEAF 2. This question is about language modelling and classification. (a) Thistaskinvolvesdevelopinganordererrorcorrectorforapopularburgerchain,‘out-and-in burger’. Below is a table of five separate order interactions transcribed from a mobile app. forget it i wanna eat a hamburger no i wanna eat a hamburger i would like to eat breakfast i would like to eat a cheeseburger and a beer would you like fries with that Table 1: Five interactions for a burger restaurant ordering system. Sample text collections statistics for a bigram model are below: • V = 22 unique words (including reserved tokens) • N = 45 tokens, including padding (i) Use the text provided in Table 1 above to compute word unigram probabilities. In a list or table format complete the probability table with Laplace smoothing that has K = 0.5. Show your workings. Discuss the impact on the probability values of increasing or decreasing the value of K. Describe the effect of K when these probabilities are used in a spelling (error) correction task. Word Unigram Probability breakfast beer hamburger [5] (ii) A larger collection of restaurant ordering data is collected. It has the following statistics: N = 73194, V = 1996 from a total of 8565 documents (utterances). Compute the bigram probability of the following sequence: [i might like a cheeseburger] with Stupid Backoff smoothing with default values. Collection statistics for the required terms are provided below. Show your workings, including each bigram’s probability. Describe how and why a smoothing method is used here. [6] 2 CONTINUED OVERLEAF Term Count i 2815 might 4 like 1522 a 1051 cheeseburger 3 ⟨s⟩ i 1926 i might 0 might like 1 like a 49 a cheeseburger 3 cheeseburger ⟨\s⟩ 2 (b) Compare and contrast the APIs for SKLearn Transformers (e.g. Count or TF-IDF) and Classifiers/Predictors (e.g. NaiveBayes, LogisticRegression). Include descriptions of their key interface functions with descriptions of their behaviour. Discuss how they are used together to solve machine learning tasks on text. [3] (c) Below is a snippet of code to vectorize and classify text with Scikit-learn. Assume that tokenize_normalize and evaluation_summary have been defined, as we did in the labs. The input data has been pre-processed into a vector of unnormalized text documents (each a single string). from sklearn.feature_extraction.text import CountVectorizer from sklearn.linear_model import LogisticRegression # Data processing data = ... # Loads a vector of raw text documents train_index = int(len(data) * 0.1) train_data = data[:train_index,:] validation_data = data[int(train_index*0.2):,:] test_data = data[train_index:,:] # Assume corresponding labels for each data subset train_labels, test_labels, validation_labels = ... # Vectorization one_hot_vectorizer = CountVectorizer(tokenizer=tokenize_normalize, binary=True, max_features=20) one_hot_vectorizer.fit(train_data) train_features = one_hot_vectorizer.transform(train_features) validation_features = one_hot_vectorizer.fit_transform(validation_data) test_features = one_hot_vectorizer.transform(test_data) # Classification lr = LogisticRegression(solver=’saga’, max_iter=500) lr_model = lr.fit(train_features, train_labels) evaluation_summary("LR Train summary", lr_model.predict(train_features), validation_labels) lr_model = lr.fit(validation_features, validation_features) 3 CONTINUED OVERLEAF evaluation_summary("LR Validation summary", lr_model.predict(validation_features), validation_labels) lr_model = lr.fit(test_features, test_labels) evaluation_summary("LR Test summary", lr_model.predict(validation_features), test_labels) Copy and paste the code above and fix its mistakes. Although there may be more, discuss three important mistakes with their consequence, one from each section (data processing, vectorization, classification). [6] 4 CONTINUED OVERLEAF 3. This question is about word embedding models and Natural Language Processing. (a) Compare and contrast static word embeddings with contextual embedding models. Discuss the trade-offs between them for downstream tasks. [4] (b) Using your knowledge of the self-attention mechanism, answer the following question considering the following sentence: S1: [The president of the European Union spoke] Use the following weight matrices and layer parameters to compute the unnormalised attention weights between the query “president” and the keys “spoke” and “the”. What can you infer from tWquery= 0 −1 Wkey= 1 2 Token the president of the european union spoke X weights [0,1] [1,-1] [1,2] [0,1] [1,2] [1,2] [2,0] (c) Explain how and why attention-based encoders can be “stacked” to form layers in Trans- former models. [2] (d) Inthisquestionweexplorewhatcanbedonewhenfacedwithacompletely“alien”scenario. Klingon is a language originating from TV series Star Trek. Many classic works such as Hamlet, Much Ado About Nothing, Tao Te Ching, and Gilgamesh have been translated by hand to Klingon. It is studied and formalised by the Klingon Language Institute (KLI) and was designed to be dissimilar from English. Below are some sample Klingon-English translations. [3] Klingon taH pagh, taHbe’ bIpIv’a’ munglIj nuq Huch ’ar DaneH? Approximate English Translation Whether to continue, or not to continue [existence] How are you? Where are you from? How much is this? Figure 1: Sample sentences in Klingon 5 CONTINUED OVERLEAF We will use knowledge of text processing and NLP to understand what is being said by Klingons and the actors portraying them in the Star Trek series. (i) Describe the process for pre-training BERT on Klingon. Briefly describe what is required and any changes needed for the model. [3] (ii) We want to identify when an actor makes a mistake (uses an incorrect word) when reciting a Klingon sentence from the script. Describe how to apply BERT to identify and to suggest fixes for likely mistakes. [4] (iii) We want to build a Klingon intent classifier to distinguish between ‘romance’, ‘anger’, and ‘other’ utterances. Describe how you would use an existing pre-trained Klingon BERT model for this task. Describe the data required and important challenges. [4] 6 CONTINUED OVERLEAF 4. This question deals with Information Extraction and its applications. You work as a data scientist for Pear, a (fictional) large consumer smart device company. You are given a spreadsheet of product data (including product names, model numbers, descriptions, and technical specifications) with several hundred new product releases. You are also given a collection of several million discussions collected from social media websites. Your task is to use Information Extraction (IE) and sentiment analysis to analyse consumer reactions to the new products. The output should be an overall sentiment analysis summary as well as a detailed breakdown of important issues discussed for each product. You will use your knowledge of supervised and unsupervised text processing and machine learning to design an appropriate solution to this task. An incomplete partial product row and a corresponding sample of social media data are provided below: Product ID 28151234 Part number 3201 Product name Product description Price Dimensions Pearl Smart Grilling Hub Your secret ingredient to perfect BBQ... 99 GBP 14CM H X 14CM W X 7CM D Weight ... 500 grams ... ... Table 2: Sample product spreadsheet row Post Source Text Author 1 http://url1 I just received my Pearl Smart Grilling Hub and wanted to share my initial thoughts. I had an earlier Pear Semi-Smart Grill model that this replaced. Here goes... The Hub is small, magnetic, and has giant numerals to display the numbers. All good! It required no less than 5 firmware updates, which took about 40 minutes. It connected to my phone, but then it got finicky. Temps didn’t appear, the app crashed. It’s incredibly slow to see your history. The Hub is small, magnetic, and has giant numerals to display the numbers. All good! It required no less than 5 firmware updates, which took about 40 minutes. It connected to my phone, but then it got finicky. Temps didn’t appear, the app crashed. It’s incredibly slow to see your history. author1 ... 2 http://url1 Update: they pushed an update in early March that seems to have fixed all the issues. Currently working great! author1 ... 3 http://url1 Just got mine last Friday, it did about 30 mins of updates and still rubbish. author2 ... Table 3: Sample social media data for product (a) Task definition - Define the output for the extraction task in detail. Provide a sample output schema with fields for at least two tables: Summary and Details. For each field in the schema give its definition and why it is important for the task. Give an illustrative instance that represents the output of information extraction on the sample product discussion data provided in Table 2. Briefly discuss your design and justify how it meets the target task requirements. [5] 7 CONTINUED OVERLEAF (b) System design - Provide a detailed design of the NLP extraction pipeline with the required key sub-components and sub-tasks. For each main component describe its input, its core function, and output. Characterise the task type and select an appropriate model, providing a rationale for each. Discuss modifications needed to adapt ‘off-the-shelf’ models or train new models and the data required. One of the sub-modules discussed should handle product entity coreference resolution and how a state-of-the-art BERT model could be utilised for this task, including any necessary modifications. Critically analyse your design and discuss alternatives and their trade-offs. [5] (c) Entity handling - One key challenge is understanding product entity mentions. Discuss how you would use BERT in your model for the task of detecting product entity mentions and performing coreference resolution. Include any change you would make specific to products. Describe how you would evaluate the model effectiveness including a description of data and key measures. [5] . (d) Evaluation - Develop an evaluation plan to measure and improve the effectiveness of the extraction system. Describe an appropriate experimental setup for the system evaluation. Define and describe a “top-level” main evaluation measure for the system overall. Provide appropriate evaluation measures and methods for your sub-module that performs product entity coreference resolution. Additionally, provide an evaluation setup (measures and data) for another key system sub-module. [5] 8 END OF QUESTION PAPER

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