辅导案例-CS 444/544
CS 444/544 Lab 2
Fall 2019 Page 1 of 7 R. Jesse Chaney
Please read this entire assignment, every
word, before you start working on the code.
There might be some things in here that make
it easier to complete.
This lab is October 9th by midnight. Submit a
single gzipped tar file to TEACH. Submitting
your solution before October 9th will earn you
a 10% bonus. If your submission is not a
gzipped tar file, I will not grade your
assignment. Your code must run on the EECS
Linux server os2. If it does not run on os2, it will be graded as a zero.
This lab is worth 250 points.
Heap management – beavalloc
You know you’ve been wanting to do this, so finally, here is your opportunity. Write you own
malloc package. You are going to call it beavalloc() and beavfree(). Those are the
basic functions. You also need to implement beavcalloc() and beavrealloc(), but
those are implemented using beavalloc() (with some extra code). Your code must not
make any use of any of the library malloc() functions. You can use brk() and sbrk() for
requesting or returning portions of the heap. In fact, you must use brk() and sbrk(). You
will manage the memory that is allocated.
You may notice this line in the man page for brk()/sbrk():
Avoid using brk() and sbrk(): the malloc(3) memory allocation package is the
portable and comfortable way of allocating memory.
Ha!!! As an accomplished C programmer and kernel hacker, you are empowered to use brk()
and sbrk() to write your own comfortable heap manager.
There are a lot of various examples of malloc() source code out there. I encourage you to
not rely on those and learn this on your own.
Your implementation of beavalloc() (and the other functions) must be done in a file called
beavalloc.c. You must put your main() in a separate file. I’ll provide you with a main()
that calls a number tests for your beavealloc() functions. I have provided a file
beavalloc.h, read the comments in that file.
You must have a Makefile that builds your project. I have placed a sample Makefile, the
beavalloc.h file, and sample main.c in the following directory on flip/os[12]:
~chaneyr/Classes/cs444/Labs/Lab2
CS 444/544 Lab 2
Fall 2019 Page 2 of 7 R. Jesse Chaney
Do not make changes to the beavalloc.h file. Do what you will with the Makefile, just
don’t hurt my feelings. Do not remove any of the flags for gcc (CFLAGS). I expect to build the
beavalloc program by using the following two commands:
make clean
make all
Be sure to test your code. The main.c file has a few tests in it. Run all the tests and check to
make sure the output is correct. Just because your code does not seg-fault, it does not mean
the code correctly operates. The tests can either be run all at once or individually. I recommend
you run them individually; it makes them easier to validate.
You can use whatever data structure to manage the heap you like. I decided to use a doubly-
linked list. It worked very well for me. I would say that it is he most space or time efficient, but
that is not the objective.
This is not an exercise to see if you can develop the fastest or most compact malloc()
replacement. Many people have spent years working on that; you don’t need to. This is a
simple 1-week assignment; don’t make it more than that.
Functions you need to write are:
void *beavalloc(size_t size);
The basic memory allocator. If you pass NULL or 0, then NULL is returned. If, for
some reason, the system cannot allocate the requested memory, set the errno
global variable to ENOMEM and return NULL. You must use sbrk() or brk()
in requesting more memory for your beavalloc() functions to manage.
When calling sbrk() for more memory, always request 1024 bytes. It is best if
you use a macro for this value, in case it needs to change. Making kernel calls is
expensive, so we want to minimize them.
Notice that the parameter type is size_t, which is unsigned. If you happen to
pass a negative value, odd things may occur.
When beavalloc() is called, only call sbrk() to request more memory
form the kernel when there is not enough space in the currently allocated space
to accommodate it. You must be able split existing blocks within the allocated
space. If an existing block can be split to hold a new request, split it and use it.
Correctly splitting blocks is probably the second most challenging portion of the
project. You will be using a first-fit algorithm.
First-fit algorithm – when receiving a request for memory, scan along the list for
the first block that is large enough to satisfy the request. If the chosen block is
significantly larger than that requested, then it is split, and the remainder added
to the list as another free block.
CS 444/544 Lab 2
Fall 2019 Page 3 of 7 R. Jesse Chaney
void beavfree(void *ptr);
A pointer returned from a previous call to beavalloc() must be passed. If a
pointer is passed to a block than is already free, simply return. If NULL is passed,
just return. Blocks must be coalesced, when possible, as they are free'ed.
Correctly coalescing may be the most challenging portion of this project.
void beavalloc_reset(void);
Completely reset your heap back to zero bytes allocated. You are going to like
being able to do this. Implementation can be done in as few as a single line of C
code, though you will probably use more to clean up some variables and reset
any stats you keep about heap. The only time you actually give memory back to
the OS is when you make this call. A call to beavfree() will only mark the
space available for reuse.
After you've called this function, everything you had in the heap is just
__GONE__!!! You should be able to call beavalloc() after calling
beavalloc_reset() to restart building the heap again.
void beavalloc_set_verbose(uint8_t);
I like to have the ability to enable and disable runtime diagnostic messages. A
call of beavalloc_set_verbose( TRUE ); will enable runtime
diagnostic messages. A call of beavalloc_set_verbose( FALSE ); will
disable runtime diagnostic messages. All runtime diagnostic messages must go
to stderr, not stdout.
void *beavcalloc(size_t nmemb, size_t size);
This function should perform exactly as the regular call to calloc() would
perform. You can read the man page to see what it does. If nmemb or size is 0,
then beavcalloc() returns NULL. Make use of your beavalloc(); don’t
reinvent anything for this. Consider the memset() function.
void *beavrealloc(void *ptr, size_t size);
This function should perform exactly as the regular call to realloc(). You can
read the man page to see what it does. If size is NULL, return NULL. Consider
the memcpy() or memmove() functions. When this function is called with
NULL, it means the pointer has never been allocated. Since this we expect the
memory block size to change (likely upward, this is realloc() after all), when
the ptr is NULL, actually allocate 2 times the size passed as a parameter.
void beavalloc_dump(uint leaks_only);
This is the function you must use to display the contents of your heap. It is a
large and messy function. I understand that you may need to make a few
adjustments to it so that it will work with your data structures. However, make
CS 444/544 Lab 2
Fall 2019 Page 4 of 7 R. Jesse Chaney
as few as possible and DO NOT remove any of the columns of data shown in the
original implementation.
A longer description of the output from the beavalloc_dump() is shown in
an addendum on page 5. This function can be found in the file
beavalloc_dump.c. I recommend you copy it into your beavalloc.c
module.
Look in the beavalloc.h file for declarations of the above functions.
Below is a raw plan on how you can proceed. This plan is basic and not required, but it is pretty
much how I worked through the project.
1. Start your Makefile. Initiate revision control.
2. When beavalloc() is called, just call sbrk() for the new space. Place that new
space into your data structures to manage the space. Don’t worry about the other calls
for now. Check your code into revision control.
3. Make sure beavaalloc_reset() works and deallocates all space previously
allocated using sbrk(). This will probably be a lot easier than you think. Consider
doing a little brk() dancing for this. A static variable within your beavalloc.c
file could make this really easy. Check your code into revision control.
4. When beavefree() is called, set the block as free/unused in your data structures.
Check your code into revision control.
5. Split blocks that are large enough when memory is requested. Check your code into
revision control.
6. Coalesce blocks when adjacent blocks are free-ed. Check your code into revision control.
7. Implement beavcalloc(). This is pretty simple. Check your code into revision
control.
8. Implement beavrealloc(). Slightly more involved that beavcalloc(). Check
your code into revision control.
9. Make sure all the tests work. Just because a test does not seg-fault does not mean the
test ran correctly. Break out a calculator and make sure things add up. Most computer-
based calculators have a “programmer” mode that will allow you to calculate the hex
addresses. I know both Mac and Windows have this feature in the calculator. Check
your code into revision control.
10. Celebrate. This was my favorite step.
I recommend you make use of the assert() statement in your code. You can see some
examples of it in the testing code I provide and by looking at the man page. Remember, testing
is good.
You must use the following gcc command line options (with gcc as your compiler) in
your Makefile when compiling your code.
-g
-Wall
CS 444/544 Lab 2
Fall 2019 Page 5 of 7 R. Jesse Chaney
-Wshadow
-Wunreachable-code
-Wredundant-decls
-Wmissing-declarations
-Wold-style-definition
-Wmissing-prototypes
-Wdeclaration-after-statement
Be sure your code does not generate any errors or warnings when compiled. Hunt down and
fix all warnings in your code. You may not use any `std=…` command line options for gcc.
Just use the default standard, i.e. c90.
For a comparison, my beavalloc.c file contains less than 500 lines of code. I have some
comments and some extra things in there taking up space. You don’t have to (completely) write
the beavalloc_dump() function. All in all, it is not a huge chunk of code.
Final note
The labs in this course are intended to give you basic skills. In later labs, we will assume that
you have mastered the skills introduced in earlier labs. If you don’t understand, ask questions.
Addendum – Format of the beavalloc_dump() output.
Below is an example of running my code on test 5 from the suite of tests. The heap map
consists of several columns of data. The beavalloc_dump() function has 2 purposes: 1)
help grade the assignment, 2) help debug the assignment. The columns in the output are:
blk no: I start numbering the blocks managed by beacalloc() from zero, so the initial block
number is block 0. For me, this is the start of the doubly-linked list I use to manage the heap. It
is also the address of the beginning of the heap.
block add: this is the beginning address of a block beavalloc() is managing in the heap. For
me, it is the beginning of an instance of the structure in my doubly-linked list. This address is
shown as hex.
next add: the doubly-linked list I use contains 2 pointers for the previous and next elements in
the list. This is the address of the next element. If the next address is (nil), it means that it is the
head of the list. This address is shown as hex.
prev add: the doubly-linked list I use contains 2 pointers for the previous and next elements in
the list. This is the address of the previous element. If the previous address is (nil), it means that
it is the end of the list. This address is shown as hex.
data add: in my list element data structure, I keep a pointer to where the data for the block
begins. This is that pointer; it is a little wasteful to keep this around as a pointer. This address is
shown as hex.
blk off: this is the offset (in decimal) where the block begins from the beginning of the heap.
CS 444/544 Lab 2
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dat off: this is the offset (in decimal) where the data begins from the beginning of the heap.
capacity: this represents the total number of data bytes available in the block (in decimal).
Some or even most of the bytes may not be used. See the size column below.
size: this represents the number of data bytes (in decimal) requested by the user’s call to
beavalloc(). This is the number of bytes the user can use in the block. If the user goes
beyond size bytes, then they have actually gone out of bounds of their allocation. The block
may have a capacity larger than the size. The additional bytes could be used in a call to
beavrealloc() or the block could be split (if large enough).
blk size: the total number of bytes used by the block (in decimal). This will be the sum of the
capacity and the size of the data structure used to manage the heap.
status: this simply represents whether a block is currently in use (allocated to the user) or is
free (awaiting reuse).
The row of data below the per block information shows (in decimal) the total number of bytes
of data capacity that are currently allocated, the total number of bytes the user currently has in
use, and the total number of bytes are allocated in the heap.
The final line in the output from beavalloc_dump() shows: how many blocks are allocated
to the user, how many block are marked as free, what is the address of the beginning of the
heap is (Min heap), and what the address of the end of the heap is (Max heap).

CS 444/544 Lab 2
Fall 2019 Page 7 of 7 R. Jesse Chaney

% ./beavalloc -t 5
beavalloc tests starting
running only test 5
base: 0x12b3000
*** Begin 5
5 allocs 3 frees
ptr1 : 0x12b3030
ptr2 : 0x12b3430
ptr3 : 0x12b3830
ptr4 : 0x12b3c30
ptr5 : 0x12b4030
heap map
blk no
block add
next add
prev add
data add
blk off
dat off
capacity
size
blk size
status
0

0x12b3000
0x12b3400
(nil)
0x12b3030
0

48

976

510

1024

in use

1

0x12b3400
0x12b3800
0x12b3000
0x12b3430
1024

1072

976

530

1024

in use

2

0x12b3800
0x12b3c00
0x12b3400
0x12b3830
2048

2096

976

550

1024

in use

3

0x12b3c00
0x12b4000
0x12b3800
0x12b3c30
3072

3120

976

570

1024

in use

4

0x12b4000
(nil)
0x12b3c00
0x12b4030
4096

4144

976

590

1024

in use

Total bytes used










4880

2750

5120
Used blocks: 5 Free blocks: 0 Min he ap: 0x12b3000 Max heap: 0x12b4400
heap map
blk no
block add
next add
prev add
data add
blk off
dat off
capacity
size
blk size
status
0

0x12b3000
0x12b3400
(nil)
0x12b3030
0

48

976

510

1024

free
*
1

0x12b3400
0x12b3800
0x12b3000
0x12b3430
1024

1072

976

530

1024

in use

2

0x12b3800
0x12b3c00
0x12b3400
0x12b3830
2048

2096

976

550

1024

free
*
3

0x12b3c00
0x12b4000
0x12b3800
0x12b3c30
3072

3120

976

570

1024

in use

4

0x12b4000
(nil)
0x12b3c00
0x12b4030
4096

4144

976

590

1024

free
*
Total bytes used










4880

2750

5120
Used blocks: 2 Free blocks: 3 Min heap: 0x12b3000 Max heap: 0x12b4400
*** End 5
WoooooooHooooooo!!! You survived test 5.

Make sure it is correct.

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