程序代写案例-WEEK 1

考点 1.Reason of implement
考点 2.The different of EPR with other system
考点 3.The pros and cons of each implement strategic of ERP system <
/br>考点 4.The Obstacle of implement of ERP systems

An enterprise system can be defined as “ an enterprise-wide, modular process integrated, real time,
real time information system using a single database, which is responsible for transaction
processing across all main business areas of an organisation.(PPT12页)

An ERP system enables various departments or operating units such as Accounting and Finance,
Human Resources, Production, and Sales and Distribution to coordinate activities, share information,
and collaborate with customers, vendors etc. Additionally having access to this information enables
management to make timely informed decisions
ERP系统可实现各种目标 会计等部门或运营单位财务,人力资源,生产,销售和 分配以协调活动,共
享信息和 与客户,供应商等合作。另外 访问此信息可使管理层及时做出明智的决定

Information systems perform three vital roles in any type of organisation. That is, they
support an organisation’s:
1.Business operations 支持公司的运作
2.Managerial decision making 帮助管理人员做决策
3.Strategic competitive advantage 加强公司的竞争优势

Input date(导入数据资源)
Processing data(more efficient )(数据处理加工成信息)
Output of Information Products:(交付数据给用户)

The Enterprise of the Future is a self-organizing, adaptive, learning network of knowledge
entrepreneurs achieving mutual goals. Such an enterprise is built on a sustainable, four-pillar
framework for continuous renewal:
Leading:Co-creating new business ecosystems and strategies 共同创造新的商业生态系统和战略
Connecting :Building a continually evolving, adaptive infrastructure nexus 建立不断发展的适应性基
Co-creating and delivering: Designing agile, intelligent systems and processes 设计灵活,智能的系
Discovering: Creating work environments for continuous growth and fulfillment创造持续增长和实现

What does an enterprise system do ?
Brings together previously isolated information systems with the goal of providing a more
whole or complete information resource. Integrate all resources (Bring people process
system information together. ). Achieve a common strategic business goal.

An enterprise system can help you to achieve common strategic business goals?
1. Ebusiness
Enhanced supply chain
link your systems with your vendors
2 .EGlobalisation
Growth of global trading communities and partners
3. Collaboration
Extended Business partners
Customer requirements
4. Company takeovers/mergers acquisitions

Enterprise Systems may include
Enterprise wide systems such as ERP systems
Manufacturing systems
Supply chain and inventory management systems
Customer relationship management systems
Financial information systems
eMarketing and eCommerce applications
Business intelligence (BW)
Enterprise resource planning system

ERP System Integration Points

Why implement ERP systems: Drivers for ERP(重点)***(19年考试内容)
streamline and improve business processes 简化和改进业务流程,
integrate business processes eliminate unproductive processes 整合业务流程消除非生产性流程
use best practice business processes 使用最佳实践业务流程
better manage information systems expenditure 更好地管理信息系统支出
competitive pressures to become a low cost producer 成为低成本生产商的竞争压力
increased responsiveness to customers and their needs 提高对客户及其需求的响应能力
provide a common platform and better data visibility 提供通用平台和更好的数据可见性
Act as a strategic tool for the move towards digital transformation 作为实现数字化转型的战略工具
Integration as a response to mergers and acquisitions and takeovers 整合作为对并购和收购的回应
Better decision making 更好的决策

企业实行 Enterprise System的原因
Technology Rationales:公司各个系统相互独立,数据无法流通
Business Process Rationales:提高工作效率
Strategic Rationales:更多功能,适应未来电子商业
Competitive Rationales:更低的成本,更好的竞争优势

Benefits of implementing an ERP system
● Enhance all as pects of key operations acros s a company’s entire back office
from planning through execution, management, and control.
they accomplis h this by taking proces ses and functions that were previous ly disparate and
dis jointed, and s eamles s ly integrating and coordinating them.

● Facilita te more efficient completion of day to day tas ks .
● Reduce the redundant and overlapping activities that was te time and money by s tandardizing
core procedures .
● Eliminate data s ilos by creating a s ingle, centralized repos itory of timely, accurate bus ines s
data .
● Enable more effective res ource allocation and management.

Top 10 Enterprise system benefits
Improved management decision making 改进管理决策
Improve financial management改善财务管理
Improved customer service and retention 改善客户服务和保留
Ease of expansion/ growth and increased flexibility 易于扩张/增长并增加灵活性
Faster, more accurate transactions更快,更准确的交易
Headcount reduction人数减少
Cycle time reduction缩短周期时间
Improve inventory/ Asset management 改善库存/资产管理
Fewer physical resources/better logistics 物质资源减少/物流更好
Increased revenue增加收入

What makes ERP systems unique from other systems?(ERP特点,为什么用 ERP)(19
Links all business processes automatically
Transactions occur one time at the source
Maintains an audit trail of all transactions
Utilises a common database for
– Master data
– Transactional data
– Enabling BI
Utilise a common architecture (Netweaver集成平台)
Performs internal conversions automatically (tax, foreign currency, legal rules for payroll)
Real time data extraction
Utilises best practice business processes
Most system functionality has a common interface and terminology


Types of ERP Systems
Decentralized Systems (Legacy Systems)(19年)
Data is maintained locally at the individual departments (Silos)
Departments do not have access to the data of other departments.

Problems with Decentralized Systems
● Numerous disparate systems are developed over time.
● Integrating the data becomes time and money consuming.
● Inconsistencies and duplication of data.
● Lack of timely information leads to customer
● dissatisfaction, loss of revenue and reputation.
● High inventory, material and human resource cost.

Centralized Systems (ERP Systems)
Data is maintained at a central location and is shared with various departments.
Departments have access to the data of other departments.

Benefits of a Centralized ERP System
● Eliminates the duplication, discontinuity and redundancy in data.
● Provides information across departments in real time.
● Provides control over various business processes
● Increases productivity, better inventory
● management, promotes quality, reduced
● material cost, effective human resources
● management, reduced overhead boosts profits.
● Better customer interaction, increased
● throughput, improves customer service.

The Evolution of ERP Systems(PPT20)

WEEK 2 Terminology of SAP ERP
考点 1:Why some company can Realize much more value from their systems comparing with
other company?
考点 2:How to define SAPS/4HANA(19年)

•Designed for In memory computing
•Data is stored in RAM
•Simplified Data Model
•Removed Redundancy (Removal of Aggregates & Indices)
•Less Data Footprint
•Row + Column based storage
•Up to 1800 times faster processing
•Proactive Business Model

SAP HANA is designed to process structured data from relational databases. It is capable of
using three styles of data replication depending on the source of the data – the relocated
structured data is stored directly in memory. Because of this, data can be accessed quickly in
real time by the applications that use HANA.处理关系数据库中的结构化数据

SAP HANA supports various use cases for real-time analytics. Some
examples include:
• Monitoring and optimization of telecommunications network
• Supply chain and retail optimization
• Fraud detection and security
• Forecasting and profitability reporting
• Energy use optimization and monitoring

SAP HANA is an in-memory database , column-oriented, relational database management
system developed and marketed by SAP,not a ERP system.内存数据库

The in memory computing engine allows HANA to process data stored in RAM as opposed
to reading it from a disk. This allows the application to provide instantaneous results from
customer transactions and data analyses
内存计算引擎允许 HANA处理存储在 RAM中的数据,而不是从磁盘读取数据。 这允许应用
Its primary function is as a database server to store and retrieve data as requested by the
applications immediately. In addition, it performs advanced analytics (predictive analytics,
spatial data processing, text analytics, text search, streaming analytics, graph data
processing) and includes an application server.

New version of ERP system
SAP rebuilt their ERP solution (SAP ECC) from the ground up to take advantage of HANA’s
performance and innovative data models. S/4HANA provides an award winning UX (SAP
Fiori) along with a host of application and use case-specific benefits.

SAP Fiori :
SAP Fiori is a new user experience (UX) for SAP software and applications. It provides a set
of applications that are used in regular business functions like work approvals, financial
apps, calculation apps and various self-service apps.SAP Fiori provides 300+ role-based
applications like HR, Manufacturing, finance, etc. When you open the SAP Fiori home page
application, you will see a picture of the flowers. It is because Fiori means ‘flowers’ in Italian

used SAP functions, such as workflow approvals, information lookups, and self-service
tasks. They provide simple and easy-to-use access across desktops, tablets, and

Challenges in traditional DBs
•Designed to perform well on computers with limited RAM
•Data Storage in HDDs
•Complex Data Model
•Redundancy of Data/ Need of Aggregations
•High Data Footprint
•Row based Data Storage
•Slower Transaction Processing
•Slower Reporting
•Reactive Business Model

SAP HANA supports various use cases for real time analytics .
Some examples include:
•Monitoring and optimization of telecommunications network
•Supply chain and retail optimization
•Fraud detection and security
•Forecasting and profitability reporting
•Energy use optimization and monitoring

好处:HANA design innovations such as in-memory operation and a simplified data
structure improve performance, leading to higher productivity, real-time visibility and better
use of analytics. For example, companies can react to market conditions based on up-to-the-
minute data, rather than relying on the last quarterly reports.

Functional Areas and Business Processes
Definition : “A functional area is a broad category of business activities”. The main functional
areas are
•Marketing and Sales (M/S)
•Supply Chain Management (SCM)
•Accounting and Finance (A/F)
•Human Resources (H/R)

Definition : “A business process is a set of tasks or activities that produce desired outcomes”

Key Business Processes
1. The Procurement Process (Buy)
● The procurement process includes all of the tasks involved in Acquiring
needed materials externally from a vendor.
● This process would be triggered when the warehouse needs to procure
materials, perhaps due to the low levels of inventory.
2. The Production Process (Make)
● The production process includes all of the tasks involved in Acquiring needed
materials internally.
● This process would be triggered by a customer order or the material planning
3. The Fulfillment Process (Sell)
● Fulfillment is concerned with efficiently processing customer orders.
● This process would be triggered by a customer purchase order that is
received by the sales department.
4. The Material Planning Process (Plan)
● The purpose of material planning is to match the supply of materials with the
● These materials may be Finished goods, Semifinished goods and raw
● The demand for finished goods is dependent on customer orders while the
demand for the other materials is based on the demand for the finished
5. Inventory & Warehouse Management (Store)
● IWM is concerned with the storage and movement of materials.
● For a business to operate efficiently, it is essential that materials be stored so
that they can be quickly and easily located when necessary.
● Stock movements may be the result of production, procurement, or fulfillment
6. Lifecycle Data Management (Design)
● Lifecycle data management provides a set of tools to manage product design
and improvement throughout the lifecycle of a product.
● LDM (also called Product Lifecycle Management PLM ) enables an
organisation to optimize its product development process, from design to
market and eventually until the product is discontinued, while ensuring that it
complies with industry, quality an regulatory standards.
7. Human Capital Management (People)
● HCM consists of numerous processes related to all aspects of managing
people in an organization.
● HCM touches every process in the organization as it is the people in the
functional areas who perform the tasks.
8. Project Management (Projects)
● A project is temporary in nature and is typically associated with large,
complex activities such as the construction of a factory.
● Project management refers to the process a company uses to plan and
execute large scale projects.
● Projects rely on resources and capabilities available in other processes.
9. Accounting & Finance (Track)
● There are two areas :
Financial Accounting track for external reporting
Management Accounting track for internal reporting.
● Financial accounting (FI) is concerned with tracking the financial impacts
of processes with the goal of meeting legal and regulatory reporting
requirements (e.g. profit and loss statement, balance sheet)
● Management Accounting or Controlling (CO) is concerned with Tracking costs
and revenues to assess the profitability of various profits and market

Why Focus on procurement
Major factors contribute to the importance of purchasing as a process to be
1. Rising Costs
Materials and supplies are costly
2. Advancing Technology
Technical purchasing expertise
3. Need for high quality materials and services
the quality of the input depicts the quality of the
4. Need for Shorter lead times*
JIT (just in time inventory)
Established ongoing relationships with your vendors
5. Link to porter ‘s value

SAP Business Process (Modules)
Sales and Distribution
records sales orders and scheduled deliveries Information about the customer (pricing,
address and shipping instructions, billing details, and so on) is maintained and accessed
from this module.
Materials Management
manages the acquisition of raw materials from suppliers (purchasing) and the subsequent
handling of raw materials inventory, from storage to work in progress goods to shipping of
finished goods to the customer.
Production Planning
maintains production information. Here production is planned and scheduled, and actual
production activities are recorded.
Quality Management
plans and records quality control activities, such as product inspections and material
Plant Maintenance
manages maintenance resources and planning for preventive maintenance of plant
machinery in order to minimize equipment breakdowns.
Asset Management
helps the company manage fixed asset purchases (plant and machinery) and related
Human Resources
facilitates employee recruiting, hiring, and training. This module also includes payroll and
Project System
facilitates the planning for and control over new research and development (R&D),
construction, and marketing projects. This module allows for costs to be collected against a
project, and it is
frequently used to manage the implementation of the SAP ERP system. PS manages build
to order items, which are low volume, highly complex products such as ships and aircrafts.
Financial Accounting
records transactions in the general ledger accounts. This module generates financial
statements for external reporting purposes.
serves internal management purposes, assigning manufacturing costs to products and to
cost centers so the profitability of the company’s activities can be analyzed. The CO module
managerial decision making.
is a set of tools that can be used to automate any of the activities in SAP ERP. It can
perform task flow analysis and prompt employees (by email) if they need to act. The
Workflow module works well for business processes that are not daily activities but that
occur frequently enough to be worth the effort to implement the workflow module such as
preparing customer invoices.
Customer Relationship Management (CRM)
is a tool for managing and maintaining relationships with customers. It keeps track of
business contacts, employees, clients, contract wins and sales leads.
Supplier Relationship Management (SRM)
is a tool for planning for, and managing, all interactions with third party organizations that
supply goods and/or services to an organization in order to maximize the value of those
Supply Chain Management (SCM)
is a module dealing with controlling the flow of goods through the supply chain. It starts from
the acquisition of raw materials to the delivery of finished products to the end user.
Product Life Cycle Management (PLM)
is a system which helps companies to plan, design, build and administer production with
visibility and more control. It allows efficiently tracking, controlling and managing all
information related to products over the complete lifecycle.
Industry Solutions
SAP has many customized modules which address a wide range of industries with specific
business processes.

Business Function & Process

Benefits of BPM
▪ Formalisaton of current processes:
▪ Allows for re engineering – – improved process performance
▪ Provides the base for Strategic initiatives
▪ Greater efficiency
▪ Increased productivity
▪ Decreased head count
▪ Traceability of compliance processes
▪ Links to web service powered processes that can communicate with other processes
in other companies and are wired for EAI. (Enterprise Application Integration
Business benefits of BP integration
▪ Companies can integrate all their critical business activities.
▪ Develop process chains
– Links together customers and vendors
– Core processes (finance/production) more efficient and cost effective
– Brings competitive advantage
• Through reduced costs
• Faster time to market
• Improved responsiveness to customer requirements etc
• Better decision making
• Greater transparency of data
• Enable agile organisation

考点 1 Master Data 相关内容(20年)
考点 2 CRM

Organizational Elements(PPT前几页)
Definition :
In the SAP System, organizational elements form structures that represent the legal and
organizational views of a company. These views include: accounting, manufacturing
planning and execution, materials management, and sales and distribution .
In summary, the organizational elements and their structures form the framework in which all
business transactions are processed.
在 SAP系统中,组织元素形成代表公司法律和组织视图的结构。 这些视图包括:会计,制造

Master Data vs Transaction Data

Documents record data after the process steps are completed.
Document: These include financial accounting [FI] documents, management accounting or
controlling [CO] documents, and material documents.
FI and CO documents record the financial impact of process steps. For example, when a
company receives a payment from a customer, there is a financial impact, and an FI
document is created.

Report: Reporting is a general term used to describe the ways that users can view and
analyze data to help them make decisions and complete their tasks.

Master data represented in the SAP system for our purposes covers the core business

Master data is the core data that is essential to operations in a specific business or
business unit. It is the primary focus of the discipline of Master Data Management
(MDM). Master data is not transactional data as such but is called up from a specific
database area to be included in transactional documents; such as purchase orders,
sales orders etc.

The reason of implement master data management:
•Better Partner integration and collaboration:
•Global demand and supply chain optimisation
•Privacy and data protection
•Better implement data mining and analytics
•Improved customer insight and interactions
•Better able to manage data
Master data management make sure every department has a same view of
data(one consistent view of data), other else Master data generated and
trapped in silos.

Material Master Data
The material master record is the main material data source in the enterprise.
Material data is integrated into one single database object:
Designed to reduce data redundancy
Master data used in Materials Management and Production Planning includes:
Material Master:Material Master is the most important central data object in a manufacturing
system. 它用于存储 Raw materials,Operating supplies,Semi-finished products,Finished
Bill of Material : 材料清单
is a structured list of the components which make up the product or assembly.
The list contains the material code of each component as well as the quantity per and unit of
BOM 会被用在 Material resources planning, procurement 和 producing costing 部分。
Work centre:
is where an operation or activity is carried out within a production plant.
The work centre may be a single machine, a group of machines, or an area where a particular
type of work is done
contains the steps necessary to convert raw materials into components during production.
This includes the operations, their sequence and the work centres that will do the work.
Cost centres:记录生产和采购过程中所花费的费用
Cost Centres are used to collect the actual costs from one or more work centres.
Manager and staff responsible for cost, not for revenue
在公司中,Cost centres 可作为一个部门
Benefit of material planning process for company:
–increasing customer satisfaction,
–increasing productivity and
–decreasing overall operating costs

Inventory 存货:is the stock of any item or resource used in an organization.Inventory 能自

Inventory Transactions(20年)
Goods Receipt
goods receipt is the physical inbound movement of goods or materials into the warehouse. It
is a goods movement that is used to post goods received from external vendors or from in
plant production. All goods receipts result in an increase of stock in the warehouse.库存增加
Goods Issue
goods issue is defined as a physical outbound movement of goods or materials from the
warehouse or it is the issue of physical goods or materials from the warehouse. It results in a
decrease in stock from the warehouse.库存减少
Inventory Transfer
This function is used to move inventory from one warehouse to another.
Inventory Count
Inventory counting is crucial to any company that manages an inventory . By matching the
actual inventory to the quantities saved in the database, companies can make adjustments to
existing inventory records, detect unusual or unacceptable discrepancies, and improve
Stock Overview
Shows the current stock quantities at company, plant and location levels

The procurement process includes all of the tasks involved in acquiring needed materials
externally from a vendor.
Procurement is comprised of five steps that are completed in three different functional areas
of the organization.

P2P connects procurement through to payment of goods
The purchase to pay process, also known as the P2P process, connects the procurement
and entire supply chain processes within a company through the goods receipt process, and
finally to the payment issued to the vendor.

Best practices in the procure-to-pay process
The following five best practices can help organizations improve the efficiency and
effectiveness of their procure-to-pay process:
● Implement procure-to-pay software
● Keep the process transparent
● Improve supplier engagement
● Optimize inventory(JIT)
● Streamline contract management

How procure-to-pay software can bring in efficiency in purchasing
1. Purchase requisition and approvals
2. Purchase order management
大多数从采购到付款的解决方案都会根据批准的采购申请自动创建采购订单,并启动 PO派送
流程,从向单个供应商发送多个批处理订单到根据单个购买请求创建多个 PO都可以完成。
3. Digitalised vendor management
4. Invoice matching
从采购到付款的软件,组织可以确认收货并捕获发票信息。组织可以批准发票,执行 PO匹配
5. Insights into purchasing

Tasks in the Procurement Cycle
● Internal Purchase Requisition is created by an internal department or by the MRP.
● PR is converted into a Purchase Order by purchasing dept.
● PO is sent to the vendor from the customer (this could be a request for a quote if it is
a new vendor).
● Vendor sends stock to customer with Delivery Docket
● Customer creates a Goods Receipt from PO.
● Verify physical receipt of goods matched against PO.
● Customer receives Invoice from the vendor. Invoice details are entered into customer’s
system and materials and costs are confirmed.
● Customer then posts their Payment to the vendor.
Vendor is referred to as Accounts Payable
● Payment is received by the vendor from the customer
Customer is referred to as Accounts receivable
Vendor processes the payment

A purchase
requisition is an
internal request
that is made to
the purchasing
organization to
procure a certain
list of materials.
A purchase order
is a formal
request to a
vendor to supply
certain goods or
services. It is
production order:
is an order issued to produce a specific quantity of material within a certain timeframe.
A production order captures information such as which material is to be processed, at which
location, at what time and how much work is required. It also defines which resources are to
be used and how the order costs are to be settled
生产订单捕获信息,例如要处理的材料,在什么位置,什么时间,需要多少工作。 它

WEEK 5 Sales & Distribution / CRM

Customer Relationship Management
Companies without a good connection between their workers and their customers
run the risk of losing business. Customer relationship management (CRM) software
can help companies streamline their interactions with customers

SAP’s CRM Software
SAP ERP system processes business transactions and provides much of the raw data for
SAP’s Business Warehouse: system for reporting and analysis of transactional data
Advanced Planner and Optimizer (APO): system that supports efficient planning of the supply
SAP’s view of CRM is to provide a set of tools to manage the three basic task areas, or jobs:
– Marketing, Sales, and Service

The Benefits of CRM
Lower costs
Higher revenue
Improved strategy and performance

What is sales forecasting?预测
Sales forecasting is the process of estimating future revenue by predicting the amount of
product or services a sales unit (which can be an individual salesperson, a sales team, or a
company) will sell in the next week, month, quarter, or year.

Why is sales forecasting important?决策,计划
Sales forecasting adds value across an organization. Finance, for example, relies on forecasts
to develop budgets for capacity plans and hiring. Production uses sales forecasts to plan their
cycles. Forecasts help sales ops with territory and quota planning, supply chain with material
purchases and production capacity, and sales strategy with channel and partner strategies.

● SAP’s ERP system takes an integrated approach Whenever a sale is recorded in Sales
and Distribution (SD) module, quantity sold is recorded as a consumption value for that
● Simple forecasting technique Use a prior period’s sales and then adjust those figures
for current conditions
● In SAP ERP, sales forecast can be made using: Historical sales data from the Sales
and Distribution (SD) module Input from plans developed in Controlling (CO) module
● CO module Profit goals for company can be set Sales levels needed to meet the profit
goals can be estimated

Three general approaches to production
Make to stock items: made for inventory (the “stock”) in anticipation of sales orders
Make to order items: produced to fill specific customer orders
Assemble to order: items produced using a combination of make to stock and make to order

Materials Requirements Planning (MRP)
Determines required quantity and timing of the production or purchase of
subassemblies and raw materials needed to support MPS

MRP process creates planned orders to meet dependent requirements
The main purposes of an MRP system are:
– Control inventory levels : “order the right quantity of the right part at the right
– Assign the correct priorities to items.
– Plan the capacity.

Production order execution
● For a production order to be issued and executed sufficient materials to make
the stock must be in inventory referred to as Goods issue
● The MRP will check the BOM and inventory before proceeding with the
production order
● Once goods are issued (goods receipt is created) costs are assigned to the
production order

Providing Production Data to Accounting
● Once FS accepts shipment, Receiving must notify SAP ERP system of the
arrival and acceptance of the material –Goods receipt transaction
● Receiving department must match goods receipt with purchase order that
initiated it
● When receipt is successfully recorded, SAP ERP system immediately records
the increase in inventory levels for the material

The Supply Chain

A supply chain is a network between a company and its suppliers to produce and distribute a
specific product to the final buyer. This network includes different activities, people, entities,
information, and resources. The supply chain also represents the steps it takes to get the
product or service from its original state to the customer.

SCMS includes: – Customer requirement processing – Purchase order processing –
Inventory management – Goods receipt and Warehouse management – Supplier

The Measures of Success
● Cash to cash cycle time
Time between paying for raw materials and collecting cash from customer.
● SCM costs
Include cost of buying and handling inventory, processing orders, and information
systems support.
● Initial fill rate
Percentage of the order that the supplier provided in the first shipment
● Initial order lead time.
Time needed for the supplier to fill the order.
● On time performance
If supplier agreed to requested delivery dates, tracks how often supplier met
those dates.

Case:Building a Boeing Aeroplane in the factory

Week 7

General Ledger(总账):
General ledger provide a comprehensive picture for external accounting and accounts.
The General ledger is a set of accounts to record all financial business transactions
(primary postings as well as settlements from internal accounting) in a software system
that is fully integrated with data loaded real time with all the other operational areas of a
company ensuring that the accounting data is always complete and accurate

Accounts receivable
– It contains monetary amounts that are owed by all your customers to you for services
– shows monetary amounts that have been received by
总分类科目 general ledger和明细分类科目 subsidiary ledger 。

Main categories:Assets Liabilities Owner’s equity Revenue Expense

借:商品/原材料 100 贷:GR/IR 100 (这里就是 GR)
借:GR/IR 100 (这里就是 GR) 贷:应付账款 100
借: 应付账款 100 贷:现金 100

Asset Management
Asset management is the process of developing, operating, maintaining and selling assets in
a cost effective manner.
Every company needs to keep track of its assets. That way, the relevant stakeholders will
know just what assets are available and what can be used to provide optimal returns.
The assets owned by any business fall into two main categories: fixed and current assets .
(一个是 longterm 一个是 shortterm)

Managerial Accounting
● Determine costs and profitability of company’s activities
•To develop long term plans and strategy
● Provide managers with detailed information
•To make informed decisions
•To create budgets
•To determine profitability
● Information that managers use to control day to day activities
•To develop operational plans
•To handle different managerial issues

Using ERP for Accounting Information

Problems associated with unintegrated systems
● Data sharing usually did not occur in real time
● Accounting data were often out of date
● Accounting personnel had to do significant research
● In traditional accounting, company’s accounts are kept in a record called a general
Integrated ERPsystems
● ERP system, with its centralized database, avoids these problems
● Simplifies process of closing books and preparing financial statements
● In the SAP ERP system, different modules (such as SD, MM, PP, HR, AM) cause
transaction data to be entered into the general ledger simultaneously as and when the
business transactions occur

Accounting Problems
Managing Credit
Determining Product Profitability
Inaccurate Inventory Costing
Inaccurate Product Costing
Difficulty in Data Consolidation

HOW to solve?
Require real time information,Accounts receivable is immediately updated(credit), ERP and
Activity based costing(inventory),
Standard costs for a product are established,
Consolidating Data from Subsidiaries
With ERP system, a vast amount of information is available for reporting purposes(manage
Document Flow for Customer Service(Provides an electronic audit trail)
Built In Management Reporting and Analysis Tools(build data warehousing)

Problems with unintegrated information systems
Results in out of date or inaccurate accounting data that can cause problems when a
company is making operational decisions

Product Profitability Analysis 产品盈利能力分析

• Business managers use accounting data to perform profitability analyses of a company and
its products
• When data are inaccurate or incomplete, the analyses are flawed
• Main reasons for inaccurate or incomplete data
• Inconsistent recordkeeping
• Inaccurate inventory costing systems
• Problems consolidating data from subsidiaries

The Sarbanes Oxley Act Implications of the Sarbanes Oxley Act for ERP Systems
● More stringent requirements for Financial Accounting.
● To meet the internal control report requirement, a company must: Document the
controls that are in place and Verify that the controls are not subject to error or
● Companies with ERP systems in place will have an easier time complying with the
Sarbanes Oxley Act than will companies without ERP.
对公司财务,内部报告有要求,有 ERP的公司更容易遵守

Archive : permanent storage
User Authorizations
Tolerance Groups公差组包含控制系统处理现金折扣和付款差异的方式的详细信息
Financial Transparency
Reporting trend:Reports processed faster and validated easier,ERP systems
accept data in XML and XBRL

Case Study : Sunraysia一个家族企业,Sunraysia的管理团队需要财务

考点:BM BI BR原因,分析,结果。

BPI:Business integration is the technique companies use to align the use of their technology
assets with their business to meet a shared goal or outcome. The unification of technology
and business goals allows companies to operate smoothly as they move forward and adapt.

The Benefits of ERP Integration
Increased Transparency and Information Sharing:
when other departments have immediate access to information, documents, or files that they
need, it increases response time and boosts office efficiency.

Data Accuracy:
with software that accurately stores all information in an easily accessible place, ERP
integration eradicates errors and time consuming manual processes.

Real Time Data Access: Rather than gaining access to critical data tomorrow, next week, or
even next month, you can view everything in one place when you need it.

by integrating your ERP with the rest of your business
platforms you can eliminate the need for redundant and manual data

Why Business Process Modelling(BI建模的原因)
Standardize process documentation
Same problem understanding
Transfers Knowledge
Stresses shortcomings of current situation
Allows evaluation on completeness of to-be-process
Support certification and audits
Shows potential of re-engineering

Benefits of BPM
Formalisaton of current processes当前流程的正式化
Allows for re engineering允许重新设计
Improved process performance
Provides the base for Strategic
Greater efficiency
Increased productivity
Decreased head count
Traceability of compliance processes合规流程的可追溯性
Links to web service powered processes that can communicate with other processes in other
companies and are wired for EAI.链接到支持Web服务的流程,这些流程可以与其他公司的其
他流程进行通信,并为 EAI进行连接。

重点 Business Process Re-engineering (BPR19年)
BPR is a management approach aimed at improvements by means of elevating
efficiency and effectiveness of the processes that exist within and across

Business process reengineering (BPR) is the analysis and redesign of processes
within and between enterprises in order to optimize these end to end processes and
automate non value added tasks.

Seven Reengineering Principles
1.Organize around outcomes, not tasks.
2.Identify all the processes in an organization and prioritize them in order of redesign
3.Integrate information processing work into the real work that produces the
4.Treat geographically dispersed resources as though they were centralized.
5.Link parallel activities in the workflow instead of just integrating their results
6.Put the decision point where the work is performed, and build control into the
7.Capture information once and at the source.

BPR will helps company(为什么要 BPR,怎么 BPR)
▪ Resist the temptation to automate obsolete processes with modern technology
▪ Stress the importance of simplicity
▪ Search for new ways to organize work
▪ Establish change as a constant of business in today’s world
▪ Recognize and realize the potential of new technology
▪ Vanilla implementations using software that has best practice processes

▪使用具有最佳实践流程的软件实现 Vanilla
Vannilla实施意味着在实施过程中无需对 SAP软件和数据库进行修改和定制

每个图的详细介绍在 PPT有
1. 图示化流程
2. 通常结合第一个
3. 分层结构图
4. Process升级版,每个部门部署的结构图
5. 根据时间和功能结构的流程

Splitting and consolidating paths分割合并

Workflow tools
Software programs that automate the execution of business processes and address all
aspects of a process, including:
● Process flow (logical steps in the business process)
● People involved (the organization)
● Effects (the process information)
ERP Workflow Tools
Features and Benefits
• Eg: SAP Business Workflow
• Links employees to the business transactions that need to be
• Employees can track and monitor progress of workflow tasks and take
action if tasks seem to be falling behind schedule
• Proactively connects employees with business transactions using
SAP’s internal email system and workflow tasks
• Workflow system can automatically take various actions like:
o Changing the workflow task priority
o Sending email reminders to the employees responsible for the
• For sporadic processes, workflow tools are a powerful way to improve
process efficiency and effectiveness

WEEK 9 ERP Implementation

Top 5 keys to successful ERP Implementation
•Clear alignment with overall business strategy
•Realistic expectations during implementation planning
•Focus on people, organisational change management and workforce transition
•Effective business process management and process improvement
•Strong project management, governance and controls

Case Study: RMIT AMS Project 2001:RMIT学生管理系统存在一些问题,比如 enrol,收费,
Key Findings:
–No project management methodology o PMBOK (Initiating, Planning, Executing, Controlling,
–Ineffective risk management
–Inadequate project reporting
–Lack of stakeholder management
–Poor change management
–AMS project failure due to internal culture
一般这种 IT project失败就会导致 利益相关者失去信心,效率低,成本高,无法满足 goal。

原因:Poor project planning A weak business case
Lack of senior management involvement & support
Lack of user involvement (Failure factors KPMG 2002)
Technology new to the organization
Lack of business ownership
Poor or ineffectual training
–Train the trainer

Case Study:Hershey Foods(PPT21)
•Unrealistic time frame
•Insufficient testing
•Cut over at the busiest time

How will a risk management strategy help with managing change?
•Establish a change management strategy as part of the implementation approach
•Conduct a risk management strategy as part of the implementation approach

A summation of responses identified the following best practices:
– Keeping staff informed by communicating changes and the need for these changes
–Training staff before during and after implementation
–Using staff as expert users and trainers ( staff could relate to them Train the trainer approach
–Training manuals which are easy to follow
Users of the system form part of the process
Employ a variety of change strategies
基本上解决方法就是 training, communication,report(这里有很多工具,Lumira,Design
Studio , Analysis Office , Crystal Reports , Dashboards , Explorer , Web
intelligencePPT40),control cost,通过 SAP,
sap(Embedded analytics嵌入式分析,也就是实时分析,处理数据。Business Warehouse,

1.What is the barrier of implement ERP system in the company?
2.Which factor can impact implement ERP system in the company?

The critical factors impeding a successful outcome
•Lack of leadership support (CSF)
• Resistance to change by stakeholders
• Management do not support the implementation
• End-users not ready for the change
• Organisational readiness
• Lack of communication and support (CSF) – SMEs – Change agents/Leadership support
• Lack of user education and training (CSF) – Train the trainer approach
• High turnover of key trained personnel
• Technological problems; – configuration and modification difficulties
• Cultural issues
• Lack of Change management strategy throughout the implementation (CSF)
• Lack of user involvement

WEEK 10 Current Technologies supporting ERP

Digital disruption is the change that occurs when new digital technologies and
business models affect the value proposition of existing goods and services.

Digital transformation is the process of using digital technologies to create new or
modify existing business processes, culture, and customer experiences to meet
changing business and market requirements. This reimagining of business in the
digital age is digital transformation.

Big Data is a phrase used to mean a massive volume of both structured and
unstructured data that is so large it is difficult to process using traditional database and
software techniques. In most enterprise scenarios the volume of data is too big, or it
moves too fast or it exceeds current processing capacity.

Business Intelligence technologies are capable of handling large amounts of
unstructured data to help identify, develop and/or create new strategic business

Data mining is the process of finding anomalies, patterns and correlations within large
data sets to predict outcomes. Using a broad range of techniques, you can use this
information to increase revenues, cut costs, improve customer relationships, reduce
risks and more.

In Memory Computing
Data in a data warehouse are structured as multidimensional data cubes
–Allow for relationships in the data to be analyzed quickly
Two main challenges with using a multidimensional cube structure
–A significant level of technical expertise is needed to construct a cube
–A multidimensional cube necessarily restricts how the data can be analyzed
Accessing data from memory much faster than accessing data from a hard disk

Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) Technology
•Radio frequency identification RFID ) uses electromagnetic fields to automatically
identify and track tags attached to objects.

RFIDTechnology (con t’d t)
Advantages of RFID technology
•Does not need a line of sight connection
•Can withstand most environmental stresses Application areas for RFID
•Walmart is on the leading edge of the move to integrate RFID technology into the
supply chain
•Pharmaceutical firms are evaluating the use of RFID technology
• RFID technology is being employed to track medical devices
•Spectrum Health’s Meijer Heart Center is using RFID technology to track stents

Cloud Computing
Definition : Cloud Computing is the use of hardware and software to deliver a service
over a network (typically the Internet). With cloud computing, users can access files
and use applications from any device that can access the Internet.
Examples : Gmail, Office 365

Cost Eliminates capital expense of buying hardware and software.
•Speed Extensive computing resources.
•Global Scale The ability to scale in different geographical locations.
•Productivity Hardware & software is managed.
•Performance Latest generations of hardware.
•Reliability Extensive backup and data recovery
•Security Broad set of policies, technologies and controls

Types of Cloud Computing

Public cloud
Public clouds are owned and operated by third party cloud service providers, which deliver
their computing resources, like servers and storage, over the Internet. Microsoft Azure is an
example of a public cloud. With a public cloud, all hardware, software, and other supporting
infrastructure is owned and managed by the cloud provider. You access these services and
manage your account using a web browser.
Private cloud
A private cloud refers to cloud computing resources used exclusively by a single business or
organization. A private cloud can be physically located on the company’s on site datacenter.
Some companies also pay third party service providers to host their private cloud. A private
cloud is one in which the services and infrastructure are maintained on a private network.
Hybrid cloud
Hybrid clouds combine public and private clouds, bound together by technology that allows
data and applications to be shared between them. By allowing data and applications to move
between private and public clouds, a hybrid cloud gives your business greater flexibility, more
deployment options, and helps optimize your existing infrastructure, security, and compliance.

Types of Cloud Services
Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS)云计算服务的最基本类别。
Platform as a Service (PaaS)平台即服务是指云计算服务
Software as a Service (SaaS)软件即服务是一种通过服务交付软件应用程序的方法。
互联网,按需且通常基于订阅。 借助 SaaS,云供应商托管和管理软件应用程序以及

Mobile Computing
● Increasing use of smartphones, tablet computers, and other mobile computing devices
● Mobile applications need to be developed for different kinds of smartphones, with
different operating systems
● Companies need to make many decisions about the use of mobile devices by
● Mobile devices provide users with information and can also be sources of information

WEEK 11 Future Trends

Social Media Many applications already integrated within the system, such as human
resources and customer relationship management software, have long been connected to
social media e.g. it's quite common.

IoT is simply the network of interconnected things/devices which are embedded with sensors,
software, network connectivity and necessary electronics that enables them to collect and
exchange data making them responsive.

Improve data availability
The IoT has significant implications for enhancing ERP in areas including customer service,
forecasting, inventory and asset management, and business intelligence.
IoT has already made a substantial impact in the manufacturing sector.
物联网对于在客户服务,预测,库存和资产管理以及商业智能等领域增强 ERP具有重

Improve communication
Now, IoT enables a product to communicate directly with the manufacturer from the moment
it leaves the warehouse, providing both service and engineering departments a wealth of
information. Inventory management also benefits from products being able to communicate
directly with the ERP system.直接与制造商进行通信,从而为服务和工程部门提供大量

Improve business intelligence
Businesses can now monitor machine operations anywhere in the world and perform real time
analysis of streaming data. As well as managing machine maintenance, the IoT enables social
analytics and a more direct interface with customers. The instant availability of accurate
business intelligence helps managers make better tactical decisions.企业现在可以监视世界

Quality Processes in Manufacturing
Traditional quality processes have been dependent on sampling techniques to
determine if products are being manufactured as per standards. Not only is this not
accurate, it is also too late in the process. IoT technologies integrated with ERP can
significantly reduce these incidents.质量管理,原来是采样,现在可以实时监控

Fleet Management
One of the biggest beneficiaries of IoT and ERP integration have been the fleet
management industry. Apart from the regular benefits like vehicle tracking & geo fencing, data
passed from IoT sensors can really help validate and help achieve business goals.车队管理

Artificial Intelligence( AI ) is the branch of computer sciences that emphasizes
the development of intelligence machines, thinking and working like humans. For
example , speech recognition, problem solving, learning and planning.

1.Offers Deeper Insights Into Your Data
AI systems can detect less obvious trends and make insightful inferences
about specific business operations, which in turn allows for more accurate
forecasting and informed decision making.
2. Automates Routine Processes
When a human performs a given task within their ERP system, they’re
following a set of rules that governs their actions and methodology. Such
behavioral tasks can often be expressed in mathematical terms and
programmed into software.
3. Improves User Experience Through Interaction
For example : Searching for information and consistently interacting with a
certain set of record types, such as customer data or product catalog
data. The software can then prioritize those search results.

总的来说 AI 在 ERP系统可以识别模式并自动执行例行任务

通过 ERP解决方案预先编程的功能可以确保更多

A blockchain is a decentralized, distributed, and oftentimes public, digital ledger that
is used to record transactions across many computers so that any involved record
cannot be altered retroactively, without the alteration of all subsequent blocks.
ERP Integration enables optimization of all operations of several different organizations, as
well as trusted sharing data, in particular financial transactions.
SAP has also been experimenting with using blockchain in if then operational threads, 3D
printing, and digital manufacturing.

How Can Blockchain Improve ERP Systems?
•Visibility in Every Stage of the Supply Chain Improves Transparency
•Promotes Trusts among All the Supply Chain Participants
•Authenticating and Verifying Personals before Giving Access to Participants
•Smart Contract Implementation to Automate Processes and Payments
•Lowers The Risk Factors In Digital Transactions
•Offers a High Level Of Security and Data Privacy in Real Time
•Compliance With GDPR And Secure Storage Facility For Sensitive Information
•Lowers The Costing Drastically
•Gives a Competitive Edge and Helps to Be On Top Of the Competitors
•Provides Accurate Forecasting Reports of the Market In Real Time

Additive manufacturing (AM) is the industrial production name for 3D printing, a
computer controlled process that creates three dimensional objects by depositing
materials, usually in layers.
增材制造(AM)是 3D打印的工业生产名称。

WEEK 12 Revision
Types of ERP Systems:Decentralized Systems (Legacy Systems),Centralized Systems
(ERP Systems)
Benefits of a Centralized ERP
SystemDrivers for adopting ERP Systems
Functional Areas and Business Processes
SAP Business Processes (Modules)
Master Data vs Transaction Data
Master Data Management
Materials Management Master Data
Sales and Distribution in ERP
management (CRM) software
Sales Forecasting
The Production Planning Process
Production orders
The Traditional Supply Chain(SCM)
Accounting Activities
Asset Management
The Sarbanes Oxley Act
Business Process Modelling
Event Process Chain (EPC)
ERP Workflow Tools
Implementing ERP Systems
IT Project Failure statistics
Current Technologies supporting ERP:Digital Disruption /Transformation
Big Data,Business Intelligence / Data,Mining, In Memory Computing,RFID,Cloud
Future Trends in ERP System:Social Media, IOT,AI,Automation,Blockchain,
Additive Manufacturing

● What is an Enterprise System and how is it different to a Legacy System ?
● List three problems with Decentralized Systems.
● List and explain two developments in business and technology that allowed
ERP systems to evolve to their current form:
● List two of the MAIN drivers for companies adopting ERP Systems.
● What do the initials SAP stand for ?
● Define “In memory computing” and give an example.
● Define the term “Functional Area’ and give two examples.
● Name and describe two of the key business processes in an organisation.
● List, in the correct order, the tasks involved in the Procurement Process.
● Explain the difference between Financial Accounting and Management
● Explain the concept of an “In memory” database and give one example.
● List two features of SAP Fiori.
● Identify and describe TWO Master Data items that are used in Materials
● What is an Exploded BOM ?
● Explain the meaning and use of a Material Master view.
● What effect do Goods Issues and Goods Receipts have on stock inventory
levels ?
● What is a Purchasing Info Record ?
● What is the definition and purpose of a Purchase Order ?
● What Master Data items would be required in order to enter a Sales Order
transaction ?
● What are the six processing steps that are involved in the Sales Order cycle
● Explain the difference between a Sales Inquiry and a Sales Quotation.
● What is the purpose of the Document Flow transaction in SAP ?
● List three benefits of CRM
● What are the three basic task areas managed by a CRM system ?
● Explain whether an organization should model its business processes before
the system has been implemented or after?
● Provide five main benefits of reengineering your business processes.
● Identify one major business process that might benefit from reengineering in an

● Explain the benefits that may occur from reengineering the business process
you identified above.
● If you were asked to reengineer a business process; what approach would you
● Give one working example of a business process


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