程序代写案例-CSC 503/SENG-Assignment 1
CSC 503/SENG 474: Assignment 1 
Due on:  May 27th at 23:59 PST
Where:   Brightspace (https://bright.uvic.ca/d2l/home/136102)
Instructions:
You must complete this assignment entirely on your own. In other words, you
should come up with the solution yourself, write the code yourself, conduct the
experiments yourself, analyze the results yourself, and finally, write it all solely by
yourself. The university policies on academic dishonesty (a.k.a. cheating) will be
taken very seriously. 
This does not mean that you need to go to a cave and self-isolate while preparing
the assignment. You are allowed to have high-level discussions with your
classmates about the course material. You are also more than welcome to use
Piazza or come to office hours and ask questions. If in doubt, ask!— we are here to
help.
If you are still stuck, you can use books and published online material (i.e.,
material that has a fixed URL). However, you must explicitly credit all sources.
You are also not allowed to copy-paste online materials. Woe to you if we catch
you copy-pasting the uncredited sources!
Why “if stuck”? Assignments are designed to develop your practical ML skills
and make you strong. If you do the assignments well, the project will feel like a
piece of cake. So, give your best. But, on the other hand, do not waste a whole
week on a single question: if you are stuck on a question for a few days, ask
(us) for help!
If you cannot make it until the deadline, you can use a maximum of two grace
days per assignment. They are not free, though: each grace day comes with the
25% mark penalty (so submitting on Monday evening would reduce your score
by 25%; submitting on Tuesday would further reduce it by 50%). No other
accommodations will be provided unless explicitly approved by the instructor at
least 7 days before the deadline.
These assignments are supposed to be really hard! Start early! You will need at
least two weeks to complete them!
If you do not feel challenged enough, please let me know, and I’ll think of
something.
Remember: you will need to gather at least one-third of all points during the
assignments to pass the course. If you don’t, you will get an F! 
Make sure to follow the technical requirements outlined below. TAs have the full
power to take 50% off your grade if you disregard some of them.
Be sure that your answers are clear and easy for TAs to understand. They can
penalize you if your solutions lack clarity or are convoluted (in a non-algebraic
way), even if they are nominally correct.
We will try to grade your assignments within seven (7) days of the initial
submission deadline. 
If you think there is a problem with your grade, you have one week to raise
concern after the grades go public. Grading TAs will be holding office hours
during those seven days to address any such problems. After that, your grade is
set in stone.
Technical matters:
You must type up your analysis and solutions electronically and submit them as a
self-containing Jupyter notebook. Jupyter notebooks can contain code, its
output, and images. They can also be used to type math and proofs in LT X
mode.
A E
You must use LT X mode to type formulas. Typing “a^2=sqrt(3)+b1” is a pretty
good way to lose 50% of your grade for no good reason.
A E
Each problem should be submitted as a separate file. Each file should be named
SurnameInitial_N.ipynb, where N  is two digit-padded problem number.
Correct: SmithJ_05.ipynb. Incorrect: JohnSmith_V12345 Problem 1.ipynb,
prob1.pdf etc. Zip all ipynb files and submit them as assignment1.zip to the
Brightspace. Do not submit RAR, TAR, 7zip, SHAR and whatnot; just use good ol’
ZIP. Do not include other files.
The first cell of each Jupyter notebook must start with your name and V number.
See the attached notebook for the details.
Your notebook should be organized sequentially according to the problem
statement. Use sections (with the appropriate numbers and labels) within the
notebook. Figures and relevant code should be placed in the proper location in
the document.
Notebook code must be runnable! Ideally, all answers will be the output of a code
cell.
You must use Python 3 to complete the assignments. Feel free to use NumPy
and pandas as you find it fit. Use SciPy, scikit-learn, and other non-standard
libraries only when explicitly allowed to do so.
Your first executable cell should set the random seed to 1337 to ensure the
reproducibility of your results. For Numpy/SciPy and pandas, use
numpy.random.seed(1337); otherwise, use random.seed(10). 
Document your code! Use either Markdown cells or Python comments to let us
know what you have done!
Finally, be concise! We do not appreciate long essays that amount to basically
nothing ( ). 
This assignment consists of 11 problems. Some are intended only for graduate
students (those taking CSC 503), and are labeled as such. Some contain bonus
sections: you can use bonus points to improve your overall homework score. Bonus
points cannot be transferred to other assignments or the final project. Any graduate-
level problem counts as a bonus problem for undergraduate students. Some
problems are interconnected: you cannot solve Problem 2 without solving Problem 1. 
Some problems are purposefully open-ended. Whatever you think a correct answer
is, make sure to support it with code and data.
If all this feels dull, read this for some motivation (credits to M. Schmidt):
https://www.quora.com/Why-should-one-learn-machine-learning-from-scratch-
rather-than-just-learning-to-use-the-available-libraries
Problem 1. The American Job [50 points]
The never-ending reality show called “The US Presidential Elections” has a saving
grace: it leaves a long trail of data that we can use to come up with all sorts of
nebulous “scientific” and “data-driven” conclusions. These conclusions can be, in
turn, used to annoy our Twitter followers or Facebook friends. 
Here is one such dataset:
https://raw.githubusercontent.com/kkehoe1985/ga_data_science_final_project/mas
ter/combined_data.csv. As you can see, this dataset is quite messy— 82 features in
total! Let’s clean it up!
. [Bad data; 5 points] Some cells are nonsensical: instead of having a number, they
contain "cells are there? Replace such cells with a zero.
. [Split; 5 points] Split the fips feature into two discrete features: State and
County.
Check out https://www.census.gov/programs-
surveys/geography/guidance/geo-identifiers.html and
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Federal_Information_Processing_Standard_state
_code. As you can see, FIPS is basically a concatenation of 2-digit state code
and 3-digit county code. However, some codes have only 4-digits. Why? How
can we correct them?
. [Aggregate; 10 points] Aggregate and categorize the following features into a
single feature:
Aggregate all education-related features into a single categorical feature
Education.
Aggregate all religion-based features into a single categorical feature
Religion.
For each example, the appropriate category (e.g., HighSchool or Mormon) is the
most represented feature that is to be aggregated. For example, having
{Amish: 100, Jewish: 200, Mormon: 150} would result in Religion:
Jewish.
Aggregate all age-related features into three numerical features: Old
(anybody over 65 years of age), Young (anybody under 19), and Adult (the rest,
obviously). 
Aggregate different ethnic and racial groups into a single EthnicMale and
EthnicFemale categorical features in the same way you did with the
education-related features.
Remove the following features: PovertyUnder18Pct2014,
Deep_Pov_Children.
. [Rename; 5 points] Use canonical feature and category naming: use CamelCase
naming and simplify names (e.g., rename Density per square mile of land
area - Population to PopulationDensitySqM).
. [Normalize; 5 points] Normalize all income-related features with z-score
normalization. 
. [Summary; 5 points] Report the following:
New name, mean and standard deviation of POP_ESTIMATE_2015, Population
and age_total_pop
New name, median, quartiles, and IQR of PerCapitaInc and
PovertyAllAgesPct2014 features
Mode of combined Religion and EthnicMale feature
. [Visualize; 5 points] Produce the following plots:
histogram of the following features: Religion, EthnicMale, EthnicFemale,
Education
2D scatter plot of Area and Population features
Box plot of normalized PerCapitaInc and PovertyAllAgesPct2014 features
. [Conflict; 5 points] Are there any contradicting samples in the dataset? Are
there any nonsensical samples? What do they look like? How many of them are
there?
. [Labels; 5 points] What do you think the name of the label vector is?
The result should be saved as elections_clean.csv.
Problem 2. Decisions, decisions. [40 points]
Implement ID3 decision-tree inference algorithm from scratch and infer a decision
tree from the cleaned-up US elections dataset (elections_clean.csv) that you
have generated in Problem 1.
. [ID3; 20 points] Use entropy-based split criteria. Only split on categorical and
discrete features— do not use continuous features for splitting. 
. [Boundary; 10 points] Plot the decision boundary made by the tree! You can use
the (State, County)  tuple as the x -coordinate, and the most prominent
feature (the root of the decision tree) as the y -coordinate. Colour (obviously)
corresponds to the sample label.
. [Gini; 10 points] This time, use the Gini coefficient to calculate the impurity of a
split. Do you observe any differences? Describe them.
Evaluation: Shuffle the dataset. Use 70% of the shuffled dataset for training and the
rest for validation. Use the same division for all subproblems. Report training and
validation errors for all subproblems where applicable. Also, report the maximum
tree depth and the number of features that are repeated in decision stumps.
Problem 3. Pruning the tree [30 points]
Decision trees are prone to overfitting. As such, they should be pruned.
. [Early; 15 points] Implement a pre-pruning strategy that prevents a tree from
exceeding a depth of δ . Each leaf node that covers conflicting labels will predict
the most likely label.
What happens with the training and test error for δ ∈ {3, 5, 7} ? Plot the
differences. Use the same evaluation data as in Problem 2.
. [Late; 15 points] Implement reduced error pruning on your tree. This time, use
50% of the original set (elections_clean.csv) for training, 25% for pruning
decisions, and the remaining 25% for the final validation.
Problem 4. Library, help me out! [20 points]
Repeat everything you did in Problem 2, but use scikit-learn to infer a decision
tree instead of your own ID3 implementation. Compare this tree with the one your
code produced. Are they similar or not? Why? Are error metrics similar?
Problem 5. Decision speed [20 points; only for CSC 503]
By default, decision stump learning requires O(ndk) to find the optimal stump,
where n is the number of samples, d number of dimensions (a.k.a. features), and k
the number of thresholds (or categories per feature, if a feature is categorical). Can
this be improved? If so, what would be the new complexity bound? If not, why? You
will need to provide formal proof regardless of your answer.
Problem 6. Poor regression [40 points]
So far, we have used decision trees primarily for binary classification. But we can also
use them for regression— recall the details from the lecture! Let’s give it a try.
. [Regress; 20 points] We will use the same setup as in Problem 2. This time, we
will introduce the following continuous features in addition to the existing
discrete and categorical features:  PerCapitaIncome and  PovertyLevel. Your
goal this time is to predict PovertyLevel given other features (not the original
label vector: that one should be ignored here). Again, provide relevant metrics
and plots as in Problem 2.
Hint: Use mean to predict the poverty level for a leaf node.
Hint: You can use scikit-learn to get max. 10 points here.
. [Cross-validate; 20 points] Roll out your own (implemented from scratch) 5-fold
cross-validation to select the best regression tree.
Problem 7. Old-growth forests [20 points]
Use scikit-learn to implement a random forest on 50 pre-pruned decision trees of
depth 3. The setup is the same as in Problem 2. Provide the standard training and
test error plots and statistics.
Are random forests better? How much? Why?
Bonus [30 points]: Implement random forests from scratch. Make sure that each
tree in a forest is trained on a bootstrapped sample from your training data! 
Problem 8. Linear matters [50 points]
Let’s move on to the following dataset:
https://github.com/fivethirtyeight/data/blob/master/candy-power-ranking/candy-
data.csv. 
Yes, candies ! Let’s learn something about them!
[Linear; 10 points] Use closed matrix form of linear regression to predict the
popularity (winpercent) of candy from its sugar content (sugarpercent). You
must only use NumPy and pandas for this. Plot the points (scatterplot), and the
linear fit (straight line).
[EasyLinear; 10 points] Use scikit-learn to do the same.
[NotSoLinear; 10 points] What happens if you use polynomial regression with
quadratic and cubic polynomials (e.g., αx + βx + γx + δ ) instead of a simple
linear regression? Plot the fitted polynomials and the error bars. 
3 2
[Multiple; 10 points] What happens if you add an extra feature, say
pricepercent, to predict winpercent? Use scikit-learn to predict the
regression parameters (this time, use only simple linear features). Plot the points
in 3D space and the regression hyperplane.
[Regularize; 10 points] Let’s apply regression on all features to predict
 winpercent. This time, use the ridge regression that penalizes the sum of
squared coefficients. Use scikit-learn  for this. Experiment with different
values for regularization parameter λ∈ {0.1, 1, 2} . Which one is the best? Are
there any features that are useless for predicting how popular a particular brand
of candy is?
Again, use 70/30 split for testing and validation (see Problem 2 for more details).
Problem 9. Guessing the source [15 points] 
Given a set of points from Github
(https://gist.github.com/inumanag/ebb1566746aba800899e406f03c799c1), use
linear regression to fit a line. What is the result? If the fit is not perfect, what is the
best feature transformation to get a perfect fit? Prove it with a nice plot!
Problem 10. Algebraic regularization [20 points, CSC 503
only]
Can you come up with the closed-form formula for w when using ridge regression
that penalizes the sum of squared coefficients? What would that be? Provide the
formal proof.
Problem 11. Logistic matters [25 points]
Can you use linear regression to perform binary classification? If so, try to predict
whether candy is a bar of chocolate or not through logistic regression on the dataset
from Problem 8. Which features are the best to predict a bar of chocolate? 

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