SEMESTER 1

January 2020 Examination

CS430

Advanced Concepts and Issues in Computer Science 1

Dr. C. Hayes, Dr J. Timoney, Dr. E. Galvan, Prof. B. Pearlmutter,
Dr. D. O’Donoghue, Dr. P Maguire.

Time allowed: 2 hours

All questions carry equal marks

Instructions

Yes No
Log Books Allowed 
Formula Tables Allowed 
Other Allowed (enter details) 

All questions c

General (enter details)

[25marks]

1. a) Tree-based Genetic Programming (GP)
i. Draw a diagram that shows how the following equation
max (y * y, x + 10 * x)
is represented as a tree-based GP program
ii. Write the terminals and functions used in (i)
iii. Explain how the grow, full and ramped half-and-half
initialisation methods work in tree-based GP
iv. Suppose that we define the function set as f={f1,f2,f3,f4}
and the terminal set is defined as t={t1,t2,t3,t4,t5,t6} to
solve a particular problem. To solve this problem, GP
needs to use all of them (function set and terminal set).
However, none of the GP individuals uses the last
defined function (f4). What genetic operator is necessary
to, potentially, fix this issue? Draw a diagram that shows
two variants of this operator.

[16 marks]
b) Heuristics
i. What is the main difference between an algorithm and a
heuristic?
ii. Write the pseudocode corresponding to a heuristic seen
during lectures that promotes exploration only and briefly
explain its elements. How would you modify it to make it
less explorative?
iii. Briefly explain how Tabu search works and how would
you modify it so that it can work in continuous spaces?

[9 marks]

CS430 Page 1 of 3 January 2020
CS430 Page 2 of 3 January 2020
[25marks]

2. Answer *either* Part (a) or Part (b), but not both.

a) Design, describe, and analyze the resource consumption and
error rate of a streaming algorithm that accepts an input stream,
and produces and an output stream consisting only of unique
elements of the input stream.

*** or else ***
[25 marks]
b) BRIEFLY speculate as to what computing will look like 30 years
from now, grounding your speculations in history.

[25 marks]

[25marks]

3. a) List and briefly describe each of Boden’s three levels of
creativity? Briefly discuss the spatial metaphor underlying this
view of creativity.

[5 marks]
b) Describe each of the following terms as used in relation to
Computational Creativity. Highlight any significant differences
between the paired items. Use suitable examples to illustrate
i) P-Creativity and H-Creativity,
ii) Novelty and Quality(Usefulness)

[5 marks]
c) What is the computational basis for any creativity evident in
image processing systems such as Google’s DeepDream and
similar projects?

[5 marks]
d) What is an analogy? What is the computational basis for
considering analogy models to be creative? Make use of an

[5 mark]s
e) What is a Generative Adversarial Network (GAN)? Explain how
they work, using examples for illustration. In what way might we
think of a GAN as creative?

[5 marks]

CS430 Page 3 of 3 January 2020
[25marks]

4. a) Describe in detail the concept of ‘blockchain’ as invented by
how hash functions enable blockchain.

[9 marks]
b) Ethereum was launched by Vitalik Buterin in 2015. Explain the
should explain the concept of smart contracts and how they are
implemented in Solidity.

[8 marks]
c) Explain, from an algorithmic point of view, why it is extremely
unlikely for Bitcoin to hit \$100,000 in 2020, yet feasible that it
could reach this level by 2030.

[4 marks]
d) Government and banks around the world are alarmed by the
to testify to the US Congress to address their concerns. Why are
they so worried?

[4 marks]

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